One's personality is both a composition and reflection, but if I have to choose one of them, I will choose reflection as the "self" is more important to me than "me". One's composition may change, walking across the cultural landscapes and climbing the social ladder but one's self is tied to one's reflections. The fun part is that reflections are not bound to "Time-Space" barriers ( it is not time-space) and respective mental constructs, which have grown so thick over ages, that they had reduced the image of humans to Sisyphus, rolling different sizes of boulders on hills of different heights.… As the name of this Blog indicates, knols are my perspectives on topics of interests, sweet/bitter experiences or just doodling :)
Thursday, December 1, 2011
New trends in getting freedom
1- The era of large empire nations
2- The era of nation states
3- The era of state’s nation
1- The era of large empires:
In history of early known history we read about a few nations like Persians, Greeks, Babylon’s, Assyrians, Romans, Egyptians, Mongols, etc. Actually these were the name of large empires. The presence of these large empires doesn’t mean that there weren’t other nations. There were other nations but they were divided into tribal systems that were unable to express themselves as a nation. Hence we can say that in this era of empires there were two basic characteristics, 1- A large empire and 2- Different tribes loyal to empires. These two faces of this era were exchangeable. Whenever a visionary and determined head of a tribe had succeeded in uniting fellow tribes to construct an empire they became an empire nation. The most prominent example of this phenomenon occurred in 12th century when Genghis Khan united Mongol tribes and they construct large empires mostly in Asia. The opposite of this process was also true. Whenever an empire had broken down they had scattered in small tribes. Again Mongols present the best example for this phenomenon. When the Mongol empires had broken down to Turks and Chinese they were again dissolved out into small tribes especially out of Mongolia. Today we can find Small number of Mongols in India and Pakistan in form of Hazaras, Hazaravis, etc. Outside of Mongolia the only place where large number of Mongols still exists in form of Hazaras are Hazarajat in current Afghanistan. Still these Mongols have mixed with Chinese, Turks and Aryan to develop a new nation by name of Hazaras (azara).
In this era the process of making a nation were battles. It was wars and battle which decided which tribes grow to an empire nation or which empire nation broken down into tribes. Sure! The empires made laws, institutions for governance which develop languages, knowledge, arts and skills and more profoundly values which distinguished the empires from each others. These official languages, knowledge, skills and values develop common cultures in people living in large cities under empires and in areas under influence of these laws and values. At the same time, tribes had their own tribal laws and values. The rise and fall of empires created many well developed cultures. These cultures were also influenced by geographical, religious and ethnic factors. The empire developed cultures which made way to develop nations.
2- The era nation states:
As the Science made its ground firm and the resulting technologies changed life styles and mindsets of people, the result were introduction of a large number of middle classes into every area of earth. Middle classes were conscious of their identities based on their values. The development and expansion of knowledge were keys in creating awareness among masses of people to search and organize for their identity. The crisis of identity even took help from theories in Science in order to make their identities unshakable for flaws of history. The most exploited theory in this regard is theory of evolution. The most conspicuous use of this theory was made during reign of Hitler for German nationalism. 20TH Century was the climax of this era. The First World War and Second World War in real sense were wars of identities. Both in Europe and Asia large empires like British Empire and Ottoman Empire broken down to give way to new nation state. Most of these nations fought for their freedom. Most of the freedom was achieved by armed and mass resistance against these empires. It is strange that the two large nations of world, Russia and china expressed their nationalism through communist revolutions. Now it was ideologies that were the source of recognition and identity of state nations. It became necessary because a state had to define their economic and political systems. Russian and Chinese though had nearly the same ideologies but their national identities were more important than ideologies so they never united but used the ideologies to serve their national identities. The same were true for non-communist state nations. In Europe though the Christianity were a common religion between state nations but national identity were more important than religion, so every nation states preserved their identities. Here in Asia and Africa, the Muslim national states were also gave more importance to their state nationality than to their religion or their races. Neither pan Arabism nor Islamism could unite people of Middle East but state nationality was more important than religion or race or language.
3- The era of states nations
As we have discussed earlier the state nationalities went beyond the ideological, religious and race barriers. Now it was the laws of stated which defined the nationalities. The developed countries were in constant need of workers especially skilled workers in order to sustain their rapidly growing economy, so they opened their doors to people of other areas to become part of their nations. This move changed the concept and definitions of nationality. Today we find the developed countries as nations of skilled and developed people who have gathered from around the world to have a better life. Better life and rapid growth are making people migrate and change the old concepts of nationalities. The emergence of United Nations after World War II and the urge for human rights as consequences of human right abuses during Second World War II led to a new behavior and attitude of people in different areas of world. Human rights become an essential part of state nations.
On the other hand where state nations comprised of different ethnic groups and their government failed to provide social justice or equal opportunities for growth, the disrespect and prejudice dominant, the people of particular identities are searching for way to become new nations of world.
New trends to get freedom
The emergence of United Nations and becoming of Human rights as essential part of the nation states changed the general attitudes of people and nations around the world. If we look to the purpose of United Nation, which is described in charter of UN, (The charter of UN drafted by representatives of 50 Nations in San Francisco, California in 1945) we find that 1- the principles of equal rights and rights of self determination of people, 2- promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion, are included in it. Following is the reference to purpose of UN,
PURPOSES AND PRINCIPLES
The Purposes of the United Nations are:
1. To maintain international peace and security, and to that end: to take effective collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats to the peace, and for the suppression of acts of aggression or other breaches of the peace, and to bring about by peaceful means, and in conformity with the principles of justice and international law, adjustment or settlement of international disputes or situations which might lead to a breach of the peace;
2. To develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples, and to take other appropriate measures to strengthen universal peace;
3. To achieve international cooperation in solving international problems of an economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian character, and in promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion; and
4. To be a center for harmonizing the actions of nations in the attainment of these common ends.
The United Nations are also were responsible in resolving the crisis and conflicts between member states. Though strong nations continued to violate the basic rules of the United Nations but again the countries are more careful while violating the UN’s charter. This behavior led to new method for freedom of the new nations. The freedom of East Timor and Albania is the examples of these new trends.
In both East Timor and Albania the opinion of people was known under the protection of armed forces of strong nations. In East Timor, it was Australian Army which protected the people of East Timor from Indonesian Army and under Australian Army the East Timor voted for their independence and hence got independence. The same happened in Albania, where the international peace keeping forces protected Albanian from Serbian armed forces and under the supervision and protection of international peace keeping forces the Albanian declared their independence.
The above mentioned trends opened the door for Russia and Russia adopted the same strategy for independence of Ossetia and Abkhazia. By attack of Georgia against the self declared independence of Ossetia, as Georgian army attached this area, the Russian Army intervened and protected the people of the area. Under supervision and protection of Russian Army the Ossetia declared its independence which is recognized by Russia.
Based on above mentioned facts and new trends I have concluded that the best way that people of an area that wish to get the right of self determination and independence should be as follows:
1- The representatives of the people call for an international conference on their rights of self determinations.
2- They should persuade the international community to deploy the peace keeping forces in their area to protect them against invasion or massacre or abuses of human rights.
3- Under the supervision and protection of the peace keeping forces they make a referendum for their independence and rights of self determinations. The referendum for independence will make the struggles and movements for freedom a lawful movement and the resulting state as a lawful state.
4- The peacekeeping force is helpful in keeping law and order restored and the administrations to become capable of providing and maintaining the social justice and services.