One's personality is both a composition and reflection, but if I have to choose one of them, I will choose reflection as the "self" is more important to me than "me". One's composition may change, walking across the cultural landscapes and climbing the social ladder but one's self is tied to one's reflections. The fun part is that reflections are not bound to "Time-Space" barriers ( it is not time-space) and respective mental constructs, which have grown so thick over ages, that they had reduced the image of humans to Sisyphus, rolling different sizes of boulders on hills of different heights.… As the name of this Blog indicates, knols are my perspectives on topics of interests, sweet/bitter experiences or just doodling :)
These were a collection of my first "Philosophical synthesis"... I had tried to be systematic in my syntheses but still they need far better organization and more deep contemplation. I have published them here to as a record of evolution in my thoughts over time. Any criticism (positive or negative) or thoughtful comments are most welcome... I hope you will enjoy reading them... (As this page has very limited options so I understand that it would require a little bit effort to find particular essay and follow reading it... My apologies for that).. Cheers :)
At heart, I am fan of Socrates whose main message was, "Know thyself"... This collection was part of my efforts in knowing myself so I dedicate it to the great teacher, "Socrates"....
1- Calculated discipline’s epistemology
2- Cycle of Knowledge
3- Purpose of Knowledge
4- Calculated discipline: An introduction
5- Superman of calculated discipline
6- The value of individuals in calculated discipline
7- Reflective existentialism
8- To shake hand with wisdom
9- What really wisdom is?
10- Driving agents of history
11- Information based economic system
12- Professional democracy
13- Can capitalism survive without interventions?
14- Bailout plan is a socialist injection into capitalism
15- A rough sketch of evolutionary empiricism
Calculated discipline’s epistemology (Part: 1)
Comparative study of judgments
Human is considered as most intelligent living organism or creature. What is the core of human intelligence? Certainly it is human brain. But human brain can’t work on itself. It depends on sense organs. What the human senses do? It transmits information to brain. What is information? Information is changing in environments of sense organs. For example, ear detect the change in mechanical waves. Eyes, detect the changes in electromagnetic changes. Skin detects changes in pressures, temperatures and in other words changes in waves. Nose and tongue detect chemical changes. What we call the detection of changes. The detection of changes is called judgment. In other words our sense organs make us able to judge. The same processes are done by animals also, so do the animals are also to judge? Yes! Animal’s judge t heir environment and their judgments differ based on their adaptations to their environments. Some may have an evolved judgment of chemical changes and others of mechanical changes. Besides plants and animals, there are non living materials that have the ability to judge. We call these materials as smart materials. For example quartz can judge the pressure which indicated by electricity. Human have used the ability of these materials to make machines which we call artificial intelligence. The computer is an example of artificial intelligence. If the animals and plants have sensory organs that make them able to judge, so can we call them intelligent organisms? Certainly! Yes. But as we mentioned earlier, their ability to judge differs due to their adaptations to their environments. If Plants, animals and humans have the ability to judge then how can we say that human is more intelligent that other organisms?
Though all organisms have sensory organs or organelles from unicellular organisms to human and the ability to judge but we can categorize organisms based on the specialization of their nervous systems into different levels of intelligence. Human have the most evolved nervous system as human’s environments are not all natural but human’s creativity also works to shape their environments. As come to judgments of human, their judgments are complex. The human have evolved societies and civilizations in which each human have positions based on their judgments and roles. Here the judgments of humans become more complex than simple judgments of chemical, mechanical and electromagnetic changes, though the basic sense organs are the same but the information they provide are processed into more complex forms. Human develop language for communication with each other. Human also have developed languages to communicate with machines they have created. Through these languages we communicate the judgments we make in our minds which are invisible to others. We express our mental judgments by our languages, actions, works and creations.
From an introduction to judgments we are now able to understand the level of complexity of human judgments. How we distinguish the human judgment from judgments of animals, plants and machines? What distinguishes human judgments from judgments of other organisms and non-livings are called knowledge. If human judgment is knowledge, then can call all human judgments, knowledge? For example I hear the voice of a singing bird or just see an apple hanging out of a tree. Are all these are part of human knowledge? Yes! They are part of human knowledge but as the human judgments are vast, diverse and too complex, so they have classified their judgments in different classes, which are known as disciplines or branches of knowledge. The common judgments which all human share do not require specializations as they are part of necessities of life so they are acquired by social interactions or simply just by living in society but there are specialized areas in which human needs to learn in special institutions they set up like schools, colleges, universities, etc. Though human judgments become too complex and require learning processes to specialize but still there are two core adaptations around which other adaptations revolve:
1- Natural laws, like natural and social sciences
2- Codes of life, like religions, ideologies
These two adaptations are the sources of specialized human judgments which are characteristics of human knowledge. Natural laws are the products of both experiences and mental processing of them. Here human experiences are specialized in two forms of evidences and experiments. Natural sciences and Social sciences are two main divisions of the natural laws. The sources of natural laws are investigations into nature through their senses. In other words natural laws are heavily dependent and result from basic judgments and that is judgments of senses.
Codes of life are mostly in form of religions, cultures and ideologies which are representatives of human natural desires and wants. Codes of life are the sources of individuals and groups of people’s behaviors and interactions. Laws which form societies and direct human behaviors are based on codes of life. Now the question arises, what are the sources of codes of life? As the natural laws were dependant on basic judgments like senses, the codes of life are dependent on natural laws. The codes of life tend to be harmonious to natural laws. As much a code of life is harmonious with natural laws we call it more wise and reliable. This reliability is the source of eligibility and also the differences between human societies, religions and cultural groups.
Codes of life which are harmonious with natural laws are more successful. Every codes of life have sets of values which are normally known as moral values. Moral values are harmonious to natural laws are taken either from wise men who had authority on natural laws and hence their devised values were more harmonious with natural laws or taken from God who were the creator of natural laws. We have heard of wisdom and truth. What is wisdom? The search for natural laws or harmony with natural laws is called wisdom. It is why the love of wisdom is called as philosophy.
Some may ask here, why the natural laws are foundations of human judgments not the nature itself? As we mentioned earlier that the human judgment is more complex than animals, plants and machines. The complexity of judgments of human is due to the mental processes that men make and which are invisible until they are not expressed. We know that expressions of men are highly specialized. Due to mental processes of men the men judged that they are the centre of everything. Before renaissance men were thinking that not only they are centre to everything but the earth they are living on is also the centre of universe. But after it was proved that earth is not centre of universe so they again inclined to themselves. Though men are thinking of possibility of extraterrestrial creature that possibly could be more evolve than us and hence more evolved judgments. But still men haven’t given up their centrality.
Men do not judge solely based on information they get and of processing of these information in their mind but they also judge based on the perceptions they make out of the interactions with each other. Human process the information they get through their senses and communicate with each other the processed information. These processed information are sources of our interpretations of world. We know it as world view. Our world views are mostly based on our codes of life which we have already discussed. How much our world view is harmonious with natural laws make our judgments wrong or true. As much our world views are harmonious with natural laws that much our judgments are reliable and hence our knowledge is reliable. The world views are judged by their relative harmonies to natural laws.
It is the concept of centrality of men that they have developed judgments that are not only invisible but are also difficult to be expressed. These are only felt and hence are practiced. These kinds of highly specialized judgments are called spirituality.
Until now we have discussed about the judgments. We have stressed on judgments because we have defined knowledge as, “the ability to judge”. Based on ability to judge we can divide human judgments into following types of judgments:
1- Sensual judgments
2- rational judgments
3- emotional judgments
Ideas come out of these judgments struggle for their survival. So lets the ideas struggle against natural laws which are foundations of common judgments. The harmonious ideas will survive and become part of the human knowledge. Those which are not harmonious will not get wide acceptance and by passing of time will die out. It is a natural process for constructions and evolution of knowledge.
Conclusion: Knowledge is human judgments which are harmonious with natural laws. Natural laws are consistent and provide the foundations for codes of life which rule human lives.
Calculated discipline’s epistemology (Part: 2)
Mechanism of judgments
Men are normally very conscious in expanding money, especially when money is scarce for expanding but still the emotions and feeling s dominates the decisions than rationality. Several times we appreciate more the beautiful color, unique design etc than reasonable prices and durability. Men are even more conscious while speech or giving lectures, etc but still emotions and feelings dominates over rationality. Even one uses its knowledge and rational judgments for the sake of particular feelings or emotions. Further than this one is far more careful while writing. In writing one has enough time to think and rethink, review and rewrite but we can find clear effects of the feelings and emotions over rationality. What are factors that make feelings and emotions so strong to dominate rationality and even drive and motivate rationality?
Before answering this question let’s take another factors that effects our rational judgments. It is a common experience that people have different opinions over same event. What causes the differences of opinions? It is the world view of people that make them interpret the same events differently or observe same event from different angles and perspectives.
Besides earlier mentioned two factors there is another factor also which influences our judgments. As previous two factors are voluntary this factor is involuntary, though we can control it to certain limits once we become conscious of it and determined enough to control it. This involuntary factor is HOMEOSTASIS. We know that our body is at constant struggle to maintain a balance between chemical reactions, heat exchanges, gaseous exchanges and fluids in our body. All of our organs coordinate under supervision of our brain to maintain this balance. We are normally unaware of such struggles in our body unless this balance is disturbed and we are informed in forms of symptoms and pains by our body. If the glucose level in our blood increased it is called diabetes and our body becomes thirsty and we start taking too much water and urinate in order to excrete excessive sugar from our blood. If the temperature of our body rises it is called favor and our body start sweating in order to down the temperature. Similarly if the temperature of our body comes down again it is a problem and it is called cold and our body starts shivering in order to break down glycogens keep our body warm and similarly, urination decrease the volume of blood in order to keep body warm with less energy. Water levels in body are also a common known balance. When water level is less than required it is called dehydration and if the water level increased than required it is called edema. If sodium levels increases then it is advised to take potassium to counter balance the sodium levels. In short, everything that contributes in chemistry and physics of our body, all our organs struggle to make a balance between them. If our organs fail to keep balance then again it is the organs to pay back by damages to them and we will become aware of them by symptoms and pains. Why are stressing on homeostasis and balance in the discussion of judgments?
Simply, it is state of our body that deeply influences our feelings and emotions beside the world view. Though the world view has a more dominant role in emotions and feelings and to our responses to events but still if ones are deeply suffering pains and imbalances then certainly the minds turn its attentions to self rather than other issues. It will be self which will take the attentions and judgments. Here the judgments will be weak because the feelings and emotions will be disturbed. This disturbed emotions and feelings rooted in disturbance of balance in body will effects emotions and feelings of world views. On contrary a healthy and well being individual will have the chance to have more balanced feelings. The feelings and emotions from this balanced body are affected from their world views.
It is an important stage in understanding the effects of world views on feelings and emotions and on contrary make individuals motivated for their decisions and actions. It is the motivations that awake creativities or making extra ordinary judgments. Certainly all have their own world views that effect their emotions and feelings then why there are only few individuals who make extra ordinary judgments or in other words combine the irreconcilable changes. As I previously mentioned that there is a homeostasis in body that our organs continuously struggle to keep the balance. If some sort of imbalance occurs then our body struggles hard in efforts in regain the balance. Our body takes help of our consciousness by communicating with us through pains and symptoms. Similarly there is a homeostasis in our minds in which our mind struggles to make our psychologically balanced. World view plays a key role in defining the balance of psyches. If some of the events make hurts a psyche in perspective of his worldview so certainly this individual will feel uncomfortable and struggle to compensate the psychological losses. Here this individual is motivated. Now the judgment of this individual is deepening. The feelings and emotions make these individuals to peer in everything for compensations. Some people define creativity as to reconcile the ideas that are commonly thought of as irreconcilable. Certainly, a motivated individual which search for psychological compensations investigate and tries hard to synthesize such combinations which is justifiable. Similarly, the opposite is also true. When a group of people with common world view has a higher position and are psychologically in better positions they will develop an ego. They are psychologically motivated to keep this position so they always struggle and investigate for possibilities that keep their positions maintained. The judgments of these individuals are deeper relative to others. The judgments of imbalanced psychological levels are extra ordinary and they are the contributors and generators to knowledge. Until now we have reached to conclusion that motivations are results of psychological homeostasis and they are the source of extra ordinary judgments and generations of knowledge.
The great drivers of emotions and feelings like responsibility, love, freedom, ego, hatred etc are all organs of consciousness that coordinate under self. Self tries to keep a psychological homeostasis. Psychological homeostasis is foundation of motivations and judgments. It is psychological homeostasis which decides levels of motivations and hence levels of judgments. It is the main mechanism of knowledge or human judgments.
Self in order to keep the balance of psychological homeostasis have evolved two key strategies. These strategies are competitions and cooperation. Both competitions and cooperation are not limited to psychological acts but the body also adopts it. Both competitions and cooperation requires specializations but the key difference lies in dependence of competition in material specializations and cooperation in mental specializations. It should be noted that physical or material specialization translate itself in mentality and similarly the mental specialization translate itself into materialization. Less evolved organisms depend heavily on competitions and less on cooperation. As the levels of competitiveness increase and make competition very expensive so the organisms shift to cooperation. Competition requires lesser levels of judgment than cooperation. Cooperation requires high levels of judgments to make individuals specialized enough to become a compulsory part of a group. Individuals in human societies are depending more on cooperation than competition. It is necessary for survival in these societies to require a level of individual specialization to make ones cooperation acceptable or in more practical expression, exchangeable. It is mental specializations which create new ways of cooperation. Self, in a struggle to keep its psychological homeostasis has to develop extra ordinary judgments in order to compensate in order of hurting of his emotions and to raise higher his position in case of a gained or an acquired position.
CYCLE OF KNOWLEDGE
Cycle of knowledge lets us to deduce such realities that are beyond the existing facts. It Is a technique of thinking based on cycle approach. The cycle approach introduces Partial reality. Force is reality and strong nuclear force, weak nuclear force, magnetic force and gravitational forces are the partial realities. Partial realities says that Newtonian laws and Einstein’s relativity indicates partial realities. The theory of relativity shook the Concepts in twentieth century and dominated the minds throughout the century. Theory of relativity is an incomplete expression of the cycle of events. Why we are forced to look to everything from frame of reference to make our observation more precious..? it is because all the events accrue in cycle, following the of nature. Why men neither could found the start of nature nor can predict its end..? The explanation that physicists presented is also show the cycle of events. From point of view of relativity also the events occur in cyclic manner, but it is always different from each other from different frame of references. The window of a moving train looks different for an observer that have sit beside the window from an observer that is standing outside of the train. The fact is same but frame of references of the observer are different. We can say all the possible frame of references collectively make the whole reality of an event. So the observation of an observer is always a partial reality. Relativity says that the time for a moving object passes slow than a stationary object. Considering this, suppose the moving object continuing to get more and more speed, certainly the time will also continue to pass more and more slowly. If the rate of continuation remains same, a point will reach that the time will stop. Going reverse for a stationary object the time will remain same and for slow moving object the time will pass fast. If an object continues to slow down certainly a point will reach where the object will stop. The time will remain same of a stationary object, but is not stop because there are other objects that are relative to this stationary object are extent that it will loss its forces for further expansion then it will start to contract. It will contract to that extent that the entire universe collects in a point. it is called unified point. The fame for a unified point will stop. The cycle of time completed. As I early started it is the characteristics of the cyclic approach that it leads to the realities that is beyond the existing facts.
The figure that presented above is the geometrical expression of the ends of the universe. It is thought that it is not the first time that came into being. The universe came into being from non-being by a sudden explosion and extreme release of energy. It continued expansion. Then it will start contraction till it will disappear on non-being. It again repeats itself. Not coming down from the heavenly bodies it is better to continue their story. The galaxies, stars, planets and moons revolve in a nearly cyclic manner. It was these Revolving in cyclic manners that men get the idea of time and the instruments to measure the time. The cycle of days and nights, season, the cycle of moon and shades were tools of measurements of time, though it is not absolute. The difference in natural instruments of time shows the cyclic nature of time, that their phenomenal product is cyclic. The days, nights and seasons of all planets are not same as their revolution are not same. It was this defect that men forced to consider the speed of light or hydrogen as absolute to get more accurate measurements. This is more satisfactorily then cycles of days and nights because it is part of a larger and more speed cycle. This is also can’t be an absolute instrument for measurement as the light can be of different frequencies on the bases of which the stars are differentiated and new stars are discovered.
The force that are acted in nature work in a cyclic manner. Inside nucleus, between the sub atomic particles there is strong nuclear force that makes a nucleus stable. Then there is weak nuclear force between nucleus and electrons revolving around the nucleus. It makes an atom. It is weaker then strong nuclear force. Atoms make bond with each other by ionic bond, Covalent bond, Coordinate covalent bond, and metallic bond. They make molecules. These bonds are weaker then weak nuclear force. Next comes inter molecular forces that make bodies, which are again weaker then the bonds. Then there comes the force of gravity between the bodies that are weaker than inter molecular forces.
Strong nuclear force--------------> Weak nuclear forces-------------> Bonds-----------à Intermolecular forces--------------> Gravity
The above cyclic nature of forces indicates a continuous decrease in forces as particles grows to the bodies. These again reverse as larger bodies have more gravitational forces than small bodies and it goes to sub atomic particles where the gravitational forces are negligible but strong nuclear force act.
For centuries men look at the nature as a perfect orderly system. Even today this order is evident with full of its strength as a general truth. Today we read that the sub atomic particles change their velocity and energy regularly so their positions are unpredictable.
This observations lead to the principle of uncertainty, then to the complementary and then to the probability. We can say that there is disorder in sun atomic particles and order in larger bodies. The concept of order and absolute were due to the limitation of observations as our senses have limitations. The large observable bodies have order which always were present to the confirmation of order. The development of technology made the range of our senses wider and narrower which presently brought then to the disorder in the sub atomic particles. In the real sense the matter of order and disorder is the function of the size of the life cycle of particles. The sub atomic particles disappear in nonbeing in that fraction of seconds that is beyond the grasp of our senses, so we feel disorder in them. The life cycle of the universe is that much large that is beyond of our concepts so we feel in them an order.
The size of life cycles and the level of our observations directly influences our concepts, so we say that our knowledge, our ideas, our imaginations are much correct as much the limitations of our experiences allow us. All our progress is the efforts of expanding our abilities in more wider and narrower experiences. There a cycle exists in the mechanism of our mind and process of thinking. The main thing is the awareness of cycles. Yes it forms changes, its sizes changes in the different process of thinking. The creativity is a single name but its products may come through different cycles of thinking.
As these cycles are the tools and techniques that we use to expand our knowledge, so I have named them Cycles of Knowledge. Here I mention a few cycles that I use as tools of thinking, however everyone can arrange and develop their own cycles of thinking.
Senses------------> Attention----------> experiences----------> Disintegrate---------------> integrate
Imaginations---------> Logic---------> Selection--------> Creativity -------àIdea Forms Senses.
The above cycle of knowledge is a simple and understandable diagram that we mostly use. But the most important thing that has not shown in the diagram is the intuition that is the controller of the cycles. The intuition is not a quality out of the cycle but due to its rarity in common I have not included in the cycles. Intuition is the linking medium between the spirit and mind. The true nature of intuition is beyond the senses, because when it is working we can’t sense. We just perceive. Simply the internal echoes that came in perceivable forms in which senses have no interference is called intuition. Intuition develops and control how this cycle revolve from which the personalities get their shapes. Passions and interests are the behavioral expression of intuition. To make clearer the intuition I must repeat again the definition of intuition that the intuition is a linkage medium between spirit and mind. This definition show us also influences the intuition and senses as tools of mind also influences the intuition. The relationship between the intuition and senses can be explained by the example of a craftsman and his tools. The main thing is the craft mans skills and creativity but it is largely depend on the quality of his tools and materials. If there are well developed tools a creative and skilled crafts man will express the beauty of these combinations in his crafts and vice versa. The quality of senses influence the intuition but it is the intuition that determines the actual use of sense. The above discussion can also express in the form of a cycle as below:-
Need/Passion-------> Quest--------> Reality-------------> Mind/Intuition
Emotions-----------> Work----------> Utility -------------> Need/Passion
There was much discussion about the realities in philosophy. The controversial thing was the source of knowledge. Some believed that the reality is the reflection of our minds. Some thought that what we experience is reality. All other things are fancies. The cycle of knowledge says that both are partial reality. All partial realities collectively make the reality. As I mentioned earlier, the cycle of a man can differ from another. It is why there is a range of abilities in men. The abilities of men can be categorized by his dependence in use of stages of evolution of mind. In the following, there is linear expression of the stages of evolution of mind, but one thing we must forget that these all work together in the cycles. The categorization of one is made by his more dependence at any stage.
Instinct--------à Intention---------à Experience---------à Wisdom---------àintuition.
The very primitive men more depend on their instinct while they also use their intention, experience, wisdom and intuition. The most evolved men more depend on their intuition while they also use their wisdom, experience, intention and instinct.
Continuing the discussion of cycle of knowledge, it is better to mention the glimpses of evolved men, that most called them super men. The term super man does not mean an un-natural or the strange man but it means the most normal man. The normality was always the most extinct quality of men? The concept of superman is not essentially same for all. To me the normality is the quality that make it possible, one exploit his qualities with familiarity of himself and intention.
Understanding Power------->Passion----------> Wisdom--------->Honor--------->Courage
----------> Content---------->Triumph---------> justice with himself -------->Just man------->
Super man --------->Senses of responsibility-----------> justice with other
It was the quality of learning of men that made most close to each others. When we say a society, cultured and civilized, it is not because all of them creative people and legends, but because their majority have learnt and adopted the teachings and life styles that creative minority of them have created for them. Due to importance of learning it is better to mention the cycle of learning to help and improve our learning process by better understanding of it.
Senses -------------->Primary-perception----------> understanding Mind ----------------->Evolved perception---------------> Forms Senses
Power is the main goal of politicians, to which they measure their skills and success. It is the main thing that distinguishes between professional politicians and leaders.
Power --------->Wealth---------->Luxury-------------> Beauty----------> Laziness--------->tiresome ---------------->Exploitation-------------> Renaissance----------> Struggle----------> Power
When the words of weak and powerful come, the concept of ethics is also introduced. Ethics make clear the relationship between weak and powerful. But before introduction of cycle of ethics it is better to describe some points on ethics itself. There is reasoning that because men are incomplete so there laws are also incomplete. The history of men evidenced the incompleteness of human laws. The men need a perfect law that would be from a perfect source. Men need laws from Allah. But laws from Allah present already in the whole history of human beings from the first man Adam, as a religious point of view. Men still could not develop a just and evolved society. What is the reason when there is already divine laws present but men is unable to implement them?
Men have different abilities due to their differences of capacities and passions. As laws are in evolved forms, so their complete implementation is beyond the capacities of transitional man. Men need a long time in history that make miseries of their mistakes and ego evolve their states of consciousness they rediscover the divine laws through their own experience. The human laws are important because they reveal to the men their limitations and evolution. What men consider of them they more depend and trust on that with more certainty.
Born innocent----------> Learn good and bad------------> face good and bad -------------->Select good and reject bad---------------> innocence.
Morality is always there to help men in their decisions. But what is the morality itself is different for person to person. Some make difference between the morality of weak and strong, poor and wealthy, healthy and sick. In real practice the hearts and ambitions of these groups really differ. The difference is due to experience and feelings. Judgments greatly influences by environments of men. Morality is totally based on judgments. Before blaming a group of men for their wrong judgments of level of morality it is also necessary to judge the circumstances that other groups of men created for them. Most common morality on practice is based on loss and profits but connected them to laws is necessary to have legal reason for the actions. It is the conspicuous characteristics of modern men that call themselves civilized. A man of moral needs to know the sources of power to strengthen himself, that could give meaning to his morality. Similarly a society that wants to establish itself on basis of justice and liberty must make clear channels of power to strengthen itself and its people that justice and liberty get a meaning. Cycle of morality is showing two types of morality that men adopt from events based on their judgments.
Loss Loss-------->Events------------>Experience ------------>judgment----------------->
Morality --------------->Profits Profits
Men always loved order as sign of security and beauty, but he also loved abstraction as sign of his liberty and courage. Primitive men would certainly had been feeling themselves more free but insecure due to their ignorance. The sense of freedom would be more due to solitude and strangeness from nature. The efforts to explain their experiences during adaptation of nature were the experience of a new freedom. Liberty between the order, which would be only possible by familiarity and awareness. Mystery is only the curtain of unknown. What is known is no more be mysterious. Creativity was the guide of men in designing of order. The story of order could not continue more as the sub atomic particles become visible. Men amazed that our conceptual orders born from disorder? They are uncertain. The cycle of disorder and order is in itself and order. Order provides the tools of prediction. If in some place men cant predict it is their limitations on contrast to too much small particles and too much large bodies. Infinity is the expression of such limitations.
Primitive men (abstract) ------------->Middle men (Mechanized)-----------> Modern men (Abstract)
If our mental growths were not cyclic and it was linear then there was nothing under name of experience. Experience meant only instant feelings. We had not to be linked up with our pasts. Instant feelings and memories were all that we could rely on. In our daily life we again and again return to our memories and experiences and on bases of them we judge, decide and work. It shows a cycle of growth. It is why the best way of learning and teaching is depended on the level thinking and re thinking. Thinking mean better understanding. The practice of thinking is the most beneficial on development of creativity and analytical behavior. The process of thinking is in its real sense the time machine of mind, by which one can travel in any time that he can imagine. You can infer through traveling in past .you can predict through traveling on future.
Science, the most accepted valid method of investigation has also a cyclic methodology.
Observation ------>Inference------> Prediction------>Experiment ------->Observation
Sir Isaac Newton’s third law of motion is also a cyclic approach. “Every action has a reaction”. If origin is an action then destructions is reaction. The life cycles of organisms are essential part of biology. Rock cycles are essential part of geology. Cycle elements, like cycle of carbon are important in certain fields. The cycle of water is of special interest in hydrology….etc. Friction is a quality between two surfaces. When there is high friction, there is no displacement. As the friction becomes less the rate of displacements increase. If the friction continues to become less and less, a stage will reach when there is no friction. No friction means no displacement. So it is also a cycle.
High friction/High attraction (No displacement) ----------->Less friction (Speed displacement) -----------> No friction/ no attraction (No displacement).
The type of governments shows the attitudes of nations. As much a nation begins to aware of factors that shape their lives, they will ask that much participation in governance. Aristotle deduced a political life cycle of the governments of his own time.
Kingship------> Aristocracy--------> Oligarchy-------------->Democracy--------------> Anarchy
Certainly the life cycles of present days have been much modified as the awareness of people developed much. Shapes of countries and nations have been much diversified. The loyalty of people were always what that panic the rulers. In the single folded loyalties in past, the meaning of loyalty were much different from today. The manifold binding of today’s life’s requirements or their perceptions make loyalties are also manifold.
Economic activities and struggles for creating new markets and ways of marketing divided the economic dependences and hence obedience. Hot lands and economic zones shook the concept of the nations. Particular cultures, customs, languages, social attitudes, life styles are modifying into the global cultures. In a same time the loyalties are people are divided and they no more remain bounded within the geographical boundaries. Even organizational stage the world ever has seen. The change of exchanging goods from barter systems to coins, into currency, into credit cards,……etc. the change in labor systems, from when everyone was hunter, to the farmers, then to the:-
Everyone as worker-----------> Slave + Employee ----------->Contract based employee
------------------> Customer based employee.
These cyclic modifications clearly indicate certain things of one want to deduce. The primitive men were free in sense of loyalty and governance. The same is we going towards but modified manner. The developments of technology provide more areas of operations to the people and make more sophisticated and complex the governance. The cities will grow along the populations. The mind will grow along with growing problems. The flaws will grow with growing nets of organizations, etc. the continuation of these growing will grow to that extent the areas of operations of a man that he will feel totally free himself from all things while he is totally bounded by endless treads of connections. Men never were free from the conflicts and problems and will never be, but what always matter is justice. Even men could reach a stage that everyone have endless areas of operations again justice will be the most wanted because the difference of abilities are of non ending conflicts, which is the sole source of natural balance. The political scientists also have described the power in cyclic manner.
Conflict ------------->Consensus-------------> Power------------------> Conflict.
The real matter is that men search for better. The cyclic approach tells them that their positions and life styles will not remain same but they will change. It is evident that the existing systems have some advantages and also some disadvantages. The upcoming systems will also have some advantages and some disadvantages. A society that is in transitional stage must know that from what disadvantages they are escaping, what advantages they will loss, towards that advantages they are going to get and what disadvantages they will face. The clear vision of present and future will make them able to save their present advantages and help them in getting new advantages and avoiding the disadvantages to a certain extent. The cyclic approach asks for suck vision.
Traditional society--------------> Transitional society-----------> Modern society
---------------->Transitional society----------------> Traditional society.
In the start of discussion I have stated that cyclic approach lets us to deduce such realities that are beyond the existing facts. About the systems of governments and economic systems, it says that there must not a pure system rule at one time but systems must revolve. The societies must have political experts and economic experts that analyze the requirements and modify the systems and allow the revolving of systems according to the requirements. It is the human nature that they can’t grow up with same system comfortably. They became tire off and bored. Change is always exciting. It brings emotions for work, new ideas and overlaps the flaws by new opportunities. The largest problem in success of the cycle is the lack of leadership and the mental level of the people. In the definition of a nation, the cyclic approach says that the humanity is complete and real nation. All other division of nationalities are partial realities. Nations based on common ideologies of economic systems, governmental systems, common believes, common color, language, race, common geographical boundaries national territories etc, all are partial realities. Men certainly will reach to consensus when their state of consciousness evolves to certain extent. The logic is also a cyclic approach, as there is nothing with no differences and similarities. The question that if the events are cyclic, then why they look linear, is better to understand from the definition of line on mathematics. I n math we say that the continuity of dots make a line. Similarly the continuity of cycles of events look to us that they are going in linear manner.
PURPOSE OF KNOWLEDGE
The main purpose of knowledge is to build an ability of judgment. Any piece of information from any source that do not build the ability to judge or don’t help in strengthening the ability to judge can’t be considered as knowledge. Sometimes people define knowledge as “to know”. It is oversimplification of knowledge. In our everyday lives we learn a lot of things but even we ourselves distinguish between our information that what piece of information that we have is knowledge and what are not. This internal judgment of us has build up by the society in which we live. It is society that tells us what knowledge is and what are just pieces of information. Though most of us don’t have the criteria based on which we distinguish between a piece of information and knowledge but we have learnt it. This is similar to our capabilities in language. Most of people are not familiar with grammar and rules of language they use but they can distinguish that which sentence is correct and which is not. They can also tell you the use of words in different contexts with different meanings but they don’t know the rules. This sense of judgment has developed by during growth of the children by informal education they got from society in which they live in or they have lived.
Why we are concerned about the definition of knowledge? The definition of knowledge is very important to us for several reasons:
1- It is definition of knowledge that determines our education systems and decisions related to it.
2- It also affects our beliefs. The beliefs based on knowledge are more reliable and satisfactory than beliefs based on social practices. People around the world convert and change their beliefs due their concept of truth judged by their concept of knowledge. Hence the concept of knowledge is a test for different ideologies and religions and is a controversial and debatable issue.
3- Knowledge also determines social behaviors of the thinking and productive part of society and hence developing accepted culture.
“Knowledge is the ability to judge” has also historical foundation in philosophy. When Plato defines, “knowledge is virtue”. There many people who raise questions that if knowledge is virtue then how it is possible that we accept the product of knowledge as dangerous and threat to human existence in world. The warfare products, the dangerous drugs, the radical cultural, political and economical theories that work like vampires to suck the blood of people can’t be included in virtue. So there must be another definition of knowledge. Yes knowledge is the ability to judge. When one judge both dangers and benefits become clear. It is the knowledge that makes people aware of dangers of the products as well as of trends that is harmful to individuals and the societies in which individuals live in. Hence knowledge makes you able to judge so it is virtue. Now how do you use the judgment is all personal decisions. The knowledge does tell you what is right but can’t stop you of harming yourself and others. It also can’t force you in your actions.
Objectivity is another aspect of knowledge. The knowledge has the capacity of predictions so knowledge predicts and hence makes peoples judgment stronger in selecting directions as well as purpose for their lives and their struggles. Knowledge set objectives not only for individuals but also for societies as well as for humanity. The power of prediction of knowledge is so strong that it makes use of surplus for knowledge based objective and evolve men.
Guidance is another strong aspect of knowledge. Certainly the knowledge is so vast and diverse that an individual is incapable of mastering in all fields of knowledge, so every individual needs guidance in several fields of knowledge that is beyond of his capacity. The judgment in those fields of knowledge in which one is ignorant is very weak and could lead in serious mistakes. The professionals in society are the source of guidance not only for individuals but also for societies and institutions in society. Some religions like Shiites have developed systems of guidance for their followers. There are specialized scholars known as “Mujtahid” who guide people in matters of daily lives as well as in the problems encountered due to innovations in science and technologies.
Calculated Discipline: An introduction
Discipline is a behavior that is always thought as an essential tool for success. What is special about the discipline that determines the success? Actually discipline is mechanism of the nature and all things whether living or nonliving has adapted to it. When it comes to human, it is the easiest to understand for all. All have adapted to it unconsciously. Just by glancing around ourselves we can find examples of discipline ruling everywhere in our life. In home, books, in software of computers, in TV shows, in news papers, in streets, shops, schools, in our clothes, in our conversations and talks,….everywhere.
Anything out of discipline will panic us. It will look hard, complex, ugly, outlaw…..etc. Just take example of language. Without grammar a language will be collection of strange sounds with no meaning. The arrangements of words under a rule make us to communicate with each other even those things that we expect will happen will come to existence. We explain others things, processes that they haven’t experienced and even sometimes the speaker, himself have not experienced. All he speaks is of his imaginations. It is all possible due the disciple or rules that are in language. The level of discipline in a language, affect the level of understanding and imaginations of its users. A very simple example can clarify this point. There are dishes particular of a tribe. Just by saying the name people of the tribe imagine it. It is unimaginable for others unfamiliar with its name and dish. People in big a have more vocabulary in a particular language than smaller ones. The reason is simple. They know more names, processes, traditions and cultures. Their life is more complex and wide and they need more words to express their experiences. It looks that the levels of the vocabulary specialize the language. Special terms and ways of expressions determine the levels of disciplines. As the minds evolve, they require more disciplined terms and manners of expressions to express themselves easily and more accurately.
Measurement is another tool that is highly disciplined. The certainty and ease of this tool has improved the quality of life and are contributing most to quality of life. Again the use of this disciplined tool depends on the level of the mind’s level of discipline. A high disciplined mind is capable of using more disciplined measurements. The branches of mathematics are an example of discipline of mathematics.
Primitive people were observing some events are repeating with a consistency. The changes were regular and predictable. For example, cycle of days and nights, seasonal changes, appearance of moon and stars, rains, droughts and floods were all part of common experience. When to sow, harvest, when collect fodder and when increase in numbers of cattle as season of births come were all essential knowledge of locals for survival. These were the discipline of nature, all exposed to.
From the early times numbers greatly affected the lives of people greatly and was the basis of the social status of people. Still there is no change in basic points though the meanings evolved. How many cattle does a family need to survive? How much land does a family need for survival? These were the questions that were determinative in lives of people and hence social status of them. Having large numbers of cattle and land were the sources of the strength and insurance of good life. Hence it was the distribution of land and rights to use and land for cultivation and grazing that put the foundations for bordering and division among the people and so the politics. It was the basis for birth of tribes, nation and countries. Even it is possible that these divisions and distributions put the foundations of languages, traditions and cultures. The identities were linked to these divisions. Large number of lands and the quality of land were the source of an honored identity. Pride and feeling related to land were put as foundations for wars and hence making history. Though, the basic of these wars were resources that were the foundation of identity. These wars reshaped the lives and divisions and hence history. It is why today we see war as most important events in history and modern time for defining nations. Wars create and define nations.
Numbers of people were key in defining wars and hence become the sources of strength. How many people support a person or a cause was determinative in distributions and divisions of resources. This aspect of power put the foundation of what we know as politics. So, the number, the knowledge of numbers, uses of numbers and interpretations of numbers were what that could define the power. Power as today we know is authority is rooted in support in number of people.
To understand the stated notions in above paragraphs we should have an example for case study. Afghanistan is a new born country and a best example for studying in modern history for proof of the primitive divisions and distributions of resources. The policies of the Afghan rulers were to keep its people poor, limit the trade, not to allow the construction of means of transportation and communication and keep people illiterate. Because it is easy to rule on poor, illiterate and isolated people then people with awareness of their rights and means to fight with. Massacre of people to outnumber the opposing forces, snatching the lands of people to repopulate the lands with favorable people, putting heavy taxes on means of productions, forced laboring, and compelling people to only trade with Kuchis (nomadic tribes) and allowing Kuchis to graze on their lands were all the policy to minimize the numbers of opposite tribes, cut down their means of resources to rule on them. These policies were strangely Russian Empire and British Empire and in recent history make it problematic for Soviet forces and for U.S.A and its allies.
What about the modern men? Are discipline and number play as important in life of modern men as they played in lives of primitive people? Certainly! The role of discipline increased in modern life more than ever. It is the age of specialization and professionalism. Even the most common works like daily routines became specialized and require professional people to handle in occasions. Thematically, this era is known as post modernism. Post modernism is also used as alternative of uncertainty. Here it means there is no measure of truth and false except profit. Profit is the only motive for actions. These statements and themes visualize us as a world full of anarchy. But it is only part of mind process. Actual life is opposite to these themes. Though there are behaviors in young generations and pop culture that are illogical but in professional life there is no space for anarchy, as discipline is an ensured and experienced way and tool for success. And no organization prefers failure for success.
Number is as important today as was in past. Every day the number is a matter of concern for many people. It is determining the positions of students, stock brokers, bankers, politicians, web owners, writers, businessmen……etc. It is importance of number that organizations and individuals study the factors that control human mind to influence the minds for making their numbers larger and hence their positions.
We can divide the logic in two categories, quantitative logic and qualitative logic. Normally, we express the quantitative logic in numbers, letters and in lines and qualitative logic in terms of sentences. It is usually expressed that logic expressed in terms of sentences can’t properly convey the facts or calculated discipline. Yes this is true. But again it is a useful tool for expressing logic. A fact expressed in sentences creates different perceptions in minds. This is the sources of confusions but different perceptions also invite minds for different perspectives and hence making facts more understandable.
From the advent of the quantum era it became clearer both for physical scientists and social scientists that discipline in nature and in human life is quantified and hence can be calculated. In other words the natural law that governs over universe is “calculated discipline”.
When we determined that natural law is calculated discipline then we can use this natural law in every aspect of our lives and in every discipline. Before applying calculated discipline we should clarify our position about knowledge theory. What is knowledge and what are the sources of knowledge is always controversial. Some beliefs and human practices as well as some laws and traditions were considered rooted in metaphysics and superstitions and hence not included in knowledge. Though they are not included in knowledge but knowing them was always helpful in knowing the human behaviors and attitudes. Knowledge of human behavior is key to civic laws, learning processes, psychology, sociology, archeology, politics, economics, religions, history,……etc. Hence irrespective of their roots and sources they are part of human life and fact making machines. We can’t reject them simply because they are not products of reasons and logic. Men’s knowledge is not limited to logic and reasons. Logic and reasons are only fractions of human life and practices in reality.
Logic and reasons on the other hand are the basis of science and philosophy that are the foundations of other disciplines. Before, we going to know point of view of calculated discipline in this regard, it is important to know the shift of decline of men towards logic and reasons. If we go back through two centuries of near history we will see it is not the validities of sources and usage of knowledge but more a question that what human prefers as a truth and fact.
As the men accepted reasons and logic as the sole tool for judgment so sure men will accept only logic and reason as only source of knowledge or instrument for judging knowledge. This behavior of men led men to an extremist behavior of mono-polarity of reasons and logic.
Now we are coming to knowledge theory of calculated discipline. As evolution is a natural process and everything in nature go through evolution so we must analyze the component of human knowledge through an evolutionary perspective. Logic, reasons, emotions and feelings are all essential component of human adaptation to their environment. These essential components played a combined role in evolution of modern human civilizations and achievements. These components are common to all human in all ages; hence they are all main components of human knowledge.
In other words evolution and human adaptation reveals to us a dual nature of nature. As knowledge is also a human adaptation so the knowledge is also has a dual nature. Feelings are a natural human adaptation which is a key component for his survival. Similarly, reasoning is a human adaptation without which human couldn’t survive. These both are sources of human evolution as a whole and human knowledge in particular. The real confusion is due to the distinction is what is true or false. If we accept knowledge only those things that we think is true that the knowledge is a controversial matter that we never reach on consensus. Because men will never reach to consensus on what is true or false.
What we think right we will try our best to make it prove true and what we think as bad or not right then we will try our best to prove it false. It is what lead to mono-polarity of our mind and hence to our perception of nature, reality, truth and knowledge. We all accept that men is composed of mind and body, feelings and reasoning, Believes and experiences…..etc. Every aspect of us has a duality. There are females and males, nights and days, matter and energy, particles and waves, light and dark….etc opposing dualities that complement with each other.
Knowledge is a workable product of human as a whole not just human mind. What is true or false though is determined by human mind but is not essentially the product of human mind. The human mind may have accepted that as a human experience or human adaptation. There are many practices that human has discovered beneficial or as a solution to a problem but his mind or understanding has no clue about the mechanism of it. Later on slowly the interpretations and experiments make explanations that are acceptable to human mind. It is how human adaptations to nature works. Before we had a logical explanation to that solution that was part of human knowledge but not explainable or transferable through rational mind but through experience.
From above argument it becomes clear that human knowledge is not limited to logic and reasoning. Human knowledge is in real sense is a product of human adaptations and human. Reasoning is an essential tool of adaptation but not all. Hence the question that is where the knowledge originates, in human mind or outside human mind is irrelevant to the discussion of knowledge theory.
What about creativity and intuition? They are also human adaptation but a higher adaptation that as men evolve they rely more and more on them. For understanding this point it is necessary that we understand the evolutionary process. In evolutionary process an individual is a success or failure based on relying on certain adaptations. Those we call creative people rely more on creativity, those who are logical rely on logic and those who are artists and spiritual people more rely on emotions and feelings. All of them human adaptations but there is a general trends in adaptations beside individual adaptations. The human history is a shift of adaptations from more relying on emotions, logic and creativity. This is a developmental history of human knowledge.
For applying it in the social sciences, we base our theory on the proposition that, “calculated discipline is affecting our relation” contrary to Marxist proposition that the “Money is affecting our relations”. When we say contrary, we don’t mean controversial but just comparing the scope of both notions. Money is quantified but it is a narrower aspect of calculated discipline.
We can simplify the calculated discipline by using the common name “justice” instead and similarly define the justice as calculated discipline. So we also can say, “Our relation is affected by justice. Justice is the basis of economics, politics and culture. The main problem is with definition and systems of justice. Most of the time, justice is used just as a term or an accepted mechanism for the benefit of majority or strong portion of society. Hence we see increasing disturbance in levels of societies. Justice is just a vague term if all details of society are not available. The calculated discipline says, “Justice is done when a logical and calculated decision is done that keeps the balance disciplined”.
This is the basic principles for justice. It has two basic requirements. Firstly, an information system needed that covers all aspects of lives of all citizens. Hence an informed government is capable of doing justice. If a government has an information system that covers partial aspects of the lives of citizens then there is can be a partial justice or in other terms pseudo-justice. Secondly, it requires the discipline of relations or positions. It means every one must get the reward according to their capabilities and productivities.
Calculated discipline says that an economic model is successful and stable that keeps this term the calculated discipline is truly a knowledge based economy as it requires information systems that could keep intact the calculated discipline between production, distribution and consumption.
In today’s period of information technology, the calculated discipline can be a reality and make the human society revolutionized by changing the meaning of governance, business, and citizenship and human relations.
We start from meaning of citizenship. As the world is the home of all human being and activity of an individual in one portion of earth can affect the lives of people around the world or in other terms the activities around the world can affect the life of an individual in any portion of earth hence every one must have an international citizenship and must be obliged to an international law. Every human being must have the basic international rights and international obligations.
How this can be done? This is only possible with an international democracy. The meaning and definition of democracy is changed from perspective of calculated discipline with the definitions and practices that are familiar now. In today’s democracy we consider the government of people by people on people as rule of majority on minority. Most of the time is in reverse and that is the rule of active minority on passive majority. Whether there is rule of majority on minority or rule of active minority on passive majority is far from concept of human rights as there are always layers of people oppressed and ruled on them against their wills based on the accepted popular rules of the day. This democracy is not a knowledge based democracy which required by the calculated discipline as well as the global world of today which are going towards relying more and more on knowledge and information.
Calculated discipline thinks ideological democracies as lawful tools of oppressions. Political parties based democracies are biased as they represent interests of a particular section of society based on the racism, ideologies, nationalities, languages, religions, localities and regions, classes…etc. On contrary calculated discipline designs and suggests professional based democracy. Every profession must have assemblies and the delegates from professional assemblies to make provincial, national and international assemblies. Local professional assemblies, provincial P.A, national P.A and international P.A. delegates from these assemblies make similarly, local, provincial, national and international assemblies. These assemblies must replace the present assemblies and they make laws and supervise the development and decisions. These assemblies are knowledge based assemblies capable of solving the problems professionally and they are not biased based on colors, languages, localities and ideologies.
As concerned on the concept of economy of the calculated discipline,
The concept of universe, force, time, energy, field of forces and space all are based on evolutionary empiricism. By evolutionary empiricism we mean an evolution based on calculated discipline or in other words changes with modifications based on calculated discipline. Today, we accept that as universe is expanding as it must be small and smaller in past. If we continue to go back there must be reach a stage that the universe must be concentrated in a dot, known as singularity point. Taking the same pattern of logic the dual nature of matter or light also solved. As we know that the energy and force is mostly represented and explained in terms of a range of frequencies which depicts the energy levels. These energy levels may come from intermolecular bonding, from levels of interaction between nucleus and orbits and similarly from strong nuclear force in nucleus or at least from it fissions or fusions. As there is a range of frequencies with higher frequencies have smaller amplitudes and wave lengths and lower frequencies with lager amplitudes and wave lengths. As we get higher frequencies and continue to do so it will reach in a stage that the amplitude and wavelengths vanish and it becomes particle. Hence the particle nature of material is in reality a condensed from of frequencies. The dual nature of matter in reality is different form of energy or energy in different environments.
Superman of calculated discipline
Excellence is dream and passion of every man. Every dream has a hero. Who are the heroes that rule on dreams? Is there something exceptional that make these heroes different from others? Is there something that their achievements are not easy and whose achievements require exceptional efforts? The answer to all these questions is yes. Both religion and philosophy has spoken about superman and set ideal men for others to follow. The concept of superman is different in science and philosophy based on their focus and belief on the strength of different adaptations of men.
1- Religions stress on emotional intelligence as a way to superman
2- Philosophy stress on rational intelligence as a way to superman
3- Science stress on practical intelligence as a way to superman
4- Martial arts stress on physical intelligence as a way to superman
5- Magic stress on supernatural forces as a way to superman
6- Calculated discipline use the justice as a way to superman
1- Religions stress on emotional intelligence as a way to superman
Religions have focused on emotional intelligence because it is emotions that rule on men. Emotions have more influential rule in ruling men and behaviors of men. Emotional intelligence is a way to control an individual himself as well as to control masses. It is why the religions develop a set of ethics and rituals to control men emotionally. These ethics and rituals control men through their emotional minds. Hence religious men are controlled and administered by themselves. The close and closer acts according to these ethics and rituals are promised rewards and violations punishments, so the controls become real again by using emotional intelligence. The fear of punishments and hope for rewards are both elements of emotional intelligence.
Every religion has characters that were perfect in these ethics and rituals and are as sources of role models for others. The events and results of those events are used to both teach and fascinate people in their struggles for excellence. As these characters are exceptional people and are living an ideal life so they satisfy the emotional desire of men to survive for ever. The immortal life after death is an emotional aspect of religions which satisfy the emotional intelligence of men and provides men a point of hope and excellence to live like and live for. These characters and individuals that are used as ideal men are supermen.
2- Philosophy stress on rational intelligence as a way to superman.
Contrary to the religion which has a well developed concepts of immortal life of death, promises of punishments and rewards, mechanisms of ethics and rituals and role models as superman, the philosophy has nothing and hence a philosopher has to create all of them. The tool that a philosopher has for his creation is logic. It is the logic that a philosopher uses to understand the nature and facts and try to develop a system based on it. The Plato used his logic to develop his superman. He thought that the philosopher himself is a superman hence in his utopia the philosopher king was proposed. The philosopher king was capable to lead men to excellence. Contrary to Plato’s philosopher king who rules on society, the Nietzsche present the concept of the “Superman” One who does not follow religious ethics which make human weak and subjugate to others but superman was a man who used his creativity and integration to make his own ethics and rule on himself. Though the basic concept between the supermen of two philosophers is the subject of rule (Philosopher king rules on society and superman rules on himself) but both have the same foundation and that is use of logic for making ethics and sets of rules for an excellent life. Sure! Everyone is not able achieve such sets of logical ethics and hence these exceptional men are either king or super.
3- Science stress on practical intelligence as a way to superman
Science as a methodology to understand nature and natural laws and technology to use the nature and natural laws are combined to make men, hopeful to evolve very rapidly into futuristic men which are beyond the imaginations of present men. The biology, physics, chemistry, environmental sciences, space sciences, electronics, mathematics and all fields of engineering to evolve men into an immortal men. Biology tries to stop all diseases and even aging to keep men alive and young. Electronics struggle to make artificial intelligence capable of making men untiring and mistake free intelligent beings. Physics struggles to make men timeless and space-less to rule on universe. No one can say about the growing objectives of science as science grows our understandings we set new standards for us. It is the scientific standards that are causing men to evolve. The main difference of science with philosophy is that science contrary to philosophy is common. Any development in technology benefits common people and raise the standards of common people. Hence we can say that science don’t bind the concept of superman to individuals but to times OR to developmental eras.
4- Martial arts stress on physical control and strength as a way to superman
Martial arts look men as an entity. Here emotional, rational and physical intelligence all are important. But the physical intelligence is more stressed. As every martial arts are focused on use of human body as a weapon of defense, so the men trained with martial arts are capable of defending themselves without weapons. As martial arts are developed to compete the hard times so they are mostly linked as a defense against the social evils hence they are looked as a source of turning into undefeatable men or superman.
5- Magic stress on supernatural forces as a way to superman
Men always looked for sources of power outside of themselves. Supernatural and mysterious forces are quiet attractive concepts towards which men were always attracted. We can find these concepts in every cultures and areas of world. The magicians are thought to have links with supernatural forces and can act extraordinary acts. If we see into the developmental stages of these magicians, the basic concept is same as in martial arts. The human himself is the sources of all forces. Human is capable of doing strange things by practices and controls over his body and mind. Sure a controlled body and control mind is strange and extra ordinary for ordinary body and mind; hence they look superman to some people.
6- Calculated discipline use the justice as a way to superman
Calculated discipline as a natural philosophy is based on mechanism of nature. As all natural processes are obeying the calculated discipline hence all products of nature all also the result of calculated discipline. Men themselves as a product of nature is an example calculated discipline. The process of human body is the best examples that elaborate the calculated discipline. The input and output to human body is calculated according to their developmental stages and height to weight. The lack and excess of anything work like a poison to human body. The human body is that much sensitive to the calculated amounts of inputs and outputs that the definition of poison that made 500 years before by Paracelsus is still true. Paracelsus (1493-1541) told that, “All substances are poisons; there is none which is not a poison. The right dose differentiates a poison and a remedy”.
Sure all substances are both poison and remedy. In calculatedly correct amount is remedy and in excess amount is poison. Hence human body itself is a best balance which calculates the right amounts of needed doses of substances. Beside the concept of poison, the theory of homeostasis is another elaboration of the calculated discipline. Homeostasis is the tendency of human body or a biological system to maintain its equilibrium. Here we don’t stress on other biological system but focus on human body as here our topic is superman. In homeostasis the body regulates its temperature, hormones, acid-base levels, cell growths and composition of body fluids. The maintenance and regulation of body temperature is the most obvious and common experience. As the temperature of body gets lower than its calculated temperature, the body starts shivering in order to convert the preserved energy of body into heat energy. In contrast when body temperature gets higher than calculated body temperature, it perspires in order to cool down or lower the body temperature. The calculated discipline is not limited only to body but it is the mechanism of mind. We can understand it in two folds:
1- Mind and body is not two separate things but two faces of the same thing. It is known as dual nature of things. Just as we can’t separate matter and energy. We can’t think a mind without body or body without mind just as we can’t think hardware without software and software without hardware. This relationship had been understanding thousands years ago by Chinese, as they proposed the philosophy of dual nature of matter as Yang and Yin. The effect of body over mind and the effect of mind over body is a common experience. However, it is good to elaborate this relationship. For some students it is common experience to become constipated during exams and some students urinate a lot during exams. Some students get sleepless during exam. These are some examples of relationships of mind and body. Beyond students, it is a general experience that when people get worried some physical malfunctions happens, it may be sleeplessness, headache, feeling drowsy, Constipations, frequency of urinations or some other things. The opposite is also common experience. When one physically become tired, its minds slows down working. Both full stomach and empty stomach slows down the thinking and learning processes. Sure, the mind in an ill body can’t function as well as in a healthy body.
2- Through thousands of years of scholarly debates and experiences men find that the trusted and real function of brain is logic. Philosophy is totally stands on it either it talk in its favor or against it. Sure if in some places the logic may mislead us the science found its solution that we should verify our logics by experiments. So, these double verifications will lead us to correct understanding of nature. Either logic at first hand or experiments later on, both are based on calculated discipline. Hence the basic function or mechanism of mind is based on calculated discipline. As these calculations are automatic and we are adopted to them or we became familiar with them so we can feel them as we are calculating but in real sense just our bodies calculate or measure the amount the substance it get to distinguish between remedy and poison our minds are also calculate the data or information it receives. By a simple example we can elaborate this. If we buy some objects of normal prices which include prices 1 to 10 or more we normally don’t feel that we calculate. But if the prices or higher or involves fractions or of very different prices then we stop for a while to think and calculate. Similarly, if we travel in areas those we daily travel, we don’t feel that we are calculating the distances or keeping thinking of directions but as we travel in new places we calculate the distances and determine the directions. These are some common examples that our minds are in constant state of calculations.
Now we have determined that both our mind and body’s main mechanism is calculated discipline then it is a common expectation that men follow in their every thinking process and actions the calculated discipline. Based on this proposition we can say a natural man is one who follows the calculated discipline in his every functions and actions.
Calculated discipline is not only a term or an adjective to attached to some names or nouns and become happy of achieving the position of superman. Calculated discipline requires knowledge and control according to this knowledge. Hence a superman requires two basic things,
1- Continuous acquiring of knowledge. He can’t ignore a real piece of practical or natural knowledge.
2- He has to control himself (both mind and body) under guidance of the knowledge that leads him to calculated discipline.
As we have discussed earlier, that both mind and body are themselves are good balances that automatically calculate the inputs and outputs and men have acquired these abilities by evolutionary adaptations. But still there are voluntary actions that ask our responses. As these calculations are higher in level than adaptive calculations so for sure those who follow these calculations are not ordinary men. We call them as Superman of calculated discipline.
A calculated discipline’s superman is a just man/woman, who not only does justice to himself but also do justice in his/her interactions with others. Here we use the term justice. In calculated discipline we define the justice as a calculated discipline. Any act that is based on calculated discipline is justified. We can also say that a calculated discipline’s superman one who has a balanced character, means he/she is conscious in being balanced in diet, balanced in thoughts, balanced in acts, balanced in talks, balanced in rest and balanced in objectives and visions. For being balance a calculated discipline’s superman uses his/her emotional, rational and physical intelligence.
The value of individuals in calculated discipline
It is a well known fact that men can’t sustain their lives without forming a society. Whenever men gather themselves to form a society, some of forms of government is needed to maintain order. Whatever should be the form of governments or the methods for organizing people the objective of human societies are excellence and well being of individuals or members of society. Though every society struggles for welfare of individuals but the decisions about the fate of individuals were not made by individuals themselves but were made by authorities. Who makes laws, amends them and decide about the fate of individuals distinguish a form of governments.
In monarchy, the laws make, amend and decide the fate of people by one person.
In aristocracy, few strong families or individuals make laws, amend and decide the fate of people.
In theocracy, the religious scholars make laws, amend and decide the fate of people.
In democracy the representatives of people make laws, amend and decide the fate of people.
The above mentioned forms of governments are the main forms of governments that rule the world or human societies but looking just a glance on them will reveal that they do not value individuals. The most popular form of governments that individuals have more freedom and value is democracy but analyzing the democracy will reveal that the democracy is a form of making lawful the rule of some individuals or strong families on the society by the name of representatives of people. Becoming representative is the sign of power of the individuals. The sources of power differ from society to society so we can see the different forms of democracy and ruling groups in different societies as representatives of people. The most common source of power is MONEY. Elections are very costly process so the individuals, families or groups of people who can compete in costs of elections, competes the elections. Hence the representatives of people are wealthy individuals or have a strong support from wealthy individuals and families. In areas where there are feudal systems the feudal lords are the sources of power so they are elected as representatives of people. These representatives of people make laws, amend them and make projects that serve and benefits the sources that made them elect again and again.
Individualism is just a slogan and it practically doesn’t exist as there is no participation of individualism in society. It exists only in artistic, literature and some small groups of people that has no influence in fate and decision of people. There is no place of members of society in aristocracy, theocracy and monarchy. The calculated discipline has a political system and economy system in which the sources of power is not important but the expressions of individualism like knowledge and their productivity and above all their existence is important and valued in calculated discipline society.
Globalization and individualism:
Above we have discussed that when society organize by a form of government there is less space for individuals to express or decide about their fate by the expression of their individuality like their skills, knowledge, arts or simply by the content of their character. It is a group of individuals who decide their fate by using their names. The progress in communications has brought the human societies so close that the term global villages are used to describe this process. The process of globalization has empowered men in terms of economy, life styles, educations and self expressions. Here the control of governments has weakened and the individuals have more autonomy in their expression and deciding their fates but still there are a lot to have improved. Still there are local laws and governments that are pressing the people and their rights to decide their fates and express their individuality.
Professional democracy and the value of individuals
As we have discussed that the practiced forms of governments are not valuing the individuality of individuals in governments but globalizations are helping individuals to express their individuality. Here in professional democracy the individuality of the individuals are valued by letting them to express themselves through their professionalism. In professional democracy every professional has their own assemblies at local levels, city level, county levels, state levels, country levels and international levels. Here every individual participate in the assembly of their professions. Professions are the platforms for expression of the genuine individualism. The professions both develop personality and test the individuality of people. Hence professional democracy is a source for both developments of individuality and platforms for expression of personality.
Information based economy system and the value of individuals
In information based economy system all the incomes and expenditures of the people are digitally recorded hence the government could maintain an accepted life standard in time and place. The transparency and accepted life standards for all to save the incompatible part of society to benefits from economical and technological developments as well as an open environment for competitions and growth let individuals express their individuality.
In capitalist economy the poor and incompatible parts of the society fail to benefits from economical and technological developments because neither they can afford them nor they can compete for them. Capitalism promises to benefit the poor and incompatible parts of society indirectly which is a long and negligible process. Poor and incompatible people if benefited from outdated economical and technological benefits so again remain incompatible to compete and hence express their individuality.
In socialist economy the poor and incompatible people are promised to be benefited from economical and technological developments directly hence the governments control the sources and means of wealth. Here the creativity and individuality of people become limited as there is not open environment for competition.
In information based economy the natural products are in public ownership to benefit the poor and incompatible parts of society from economical and technological developments by setting an accepted life standard in time and space for all. On the other hand there are private ownerships in all products in which human labor, knowledge and investment is involved. Here the free competitions in human labor, knowledge, investments and businesses let the individuals express their individuality and creativity.
The transparency in distribution and maintaining life standards as well as open competitions in creativity, knowledge and labor of individuals value the individuality of every individual whether they are compatible or incompatible. I call it political and economical humanity. I also call it humanism of calculated discipline or natural justice.
Reflective Existentialism (Part: 1)
If we look to contemporary philosophy, it looks like a branch of linguistic. There is much concentration of the language as philosophers thought that it is the language that cause confusions and a lot of philosophical problems are due to confusions born out of language. In struggle to correct languages, these philosophers have damaged the contemporary philosophy to a great extent. If know ledge is the ability of judge then philosophy is the strongest and most powerful ways of judgments. Similarly language is the strongest skill that human being has developed. As philosophers have focused on weaknesses of language, similarly we can focus on strengths of language also. Let’s take the example of strengths of language.
Einstein’s famous formula, “E = m C2” is even known to many people who haven’t interest in physics or familiar with physics. Just this one inch long formula has changed the perceptions and quest for time and space. This small expression motivated people for time travel and search for immense energy hidden in nucleus of atoms.
We can quote more examples from science to understand the strengths of language but some may object that it is a mathematical language or logical expressions. So let’s take an example from philosophical language that uses common expression. For centuries it was an established philosophical proposition that, “Essence precedes existence”. This three words long expression or one inch long expression was the foundations of philosophies and philosophical thoughts. Then Come Jean Paul Sartre and changed the places of words, “Existence precedes essence”. Just changing of place of the words lead to creation of a new philosophy that popularized by name of existentialism. Sartre didn’t add any words but just changed the position. One can imagine the strength of language though some may take the same argument as the weakness of language.
Here I use the strength of language to oppose both of the above expressed notions. I express it as, “Existence complements essence”. The expressed notion is not just an inch long expression but it has its roots in social lives of people. Let’s explain it this way.
“Essence precedes existentialism” is rooted in religion which accepts the concept of souls. Souls exist and they transcends into bodies in particular times. By taking birth and growing one discovers him. Contrary to this concept, the concept, “Existence precedes essence” takes an opposite position that what we call essence is in reality a learned conception. It is society who teaches us so the one knows better who he is? One has to accept this reality and be true to himself and should act with free will and take the responsibility of the consequences. The free will indicates importance existence over essence.
We take it differently. When a child get born in 2008, he is inheriting cultures, knowledge, languages, religions, ideologies and traditions that are results of thousands of years of quests and experiences. This child can’t disconnect himself with this rich inheritance. This rich inheritance will shape his world views throughout of his developments. We can also take this example this example another way. When a child is expected to born a society, the people of that society has particular traditions for preparations of his welcoming. The role of his parents is key in this tradition. The parents have particular religion or a world view which guides them in decisions they make about the child. They have desires, resources and social responsibilities which will play key roles in deciding about the child. The name, religion, cultures, citizenship, social position, identity, race, language and gender of the child is determined as the child is expected. These predeterminations will put the foundations of the world views of this child. This world view is deciding the essence of child. But this is not whole essence of the child. As the child born, he will take effects from his changing environments and he will also affect environment which will develop his world view, so his essence will modify. A child’s existence and essence are partially determined before his birth, so there are no involvements of his free will in these determinations and decisions.
We come to partial existence and essence from observable perspectives. Still if we come from perspective of souls, again the souls take effects. If a soul transcends in any society of human, he is unable to determine the cultures, traditions, language, laws, educational and economic systems and conditions etc which are going to shape the world view of the child. As the child takes birth he starts learning. All the data that he takes from his environment will shape his feelings, motivations, believes, behaviors, perspective of happiness, success, failures, gains, losses, rights and wrongs, free will, responsibilities, or all in one his world view. This is the foundation of his personality. In this stage the child has no reactions to all he gets but reacts according to what he gets. As this child grow and educated to a level that he become able to rationalize, he will starts questioning his previous believes and world views but still he succeeds to partially amend and make a world view in which he could feel easy in society. This will be a lifelong process. Where the reflective existentialism here that says, “Existence complements essence”? It lies in our perceptions about ourselves.
The perceptions that we have about ourselves are not one-dimensional. It is not only the results of our thoughts about ourselves but the thoughts of others also which develop our perceptions. The reflections that we get from society also shape our perceptions about ourselves.
We can understand it better if we analyze the perceptions. All information that our brain take from environment are the products of the sensations that we take from our environment. The information is of two kinds. One is quick information that we all take to make our life easy for practical reasons. In this practical sensation that is the result of our learning we think of all things solid and unchangeable in the moments they exists. We try limits the reflections, refractions, absorptions of light rays in few colors and shades. Similarly we make dimensions, perspective and distances solid to get necessary information which helps us make our responses quick enough that make our interactions easy and workable. These all makes the largest parts of our perceptions. We can call it quick appearances of real world. Quick appearances are making our quick perceptions. But still there is another perception that we make after looking at drawings, paintings, graphic works and artworks of artists. The artists are more sensitive about the appearances in different lights, sides, dimensions and distances. By looking to artworks we discover the shallowness of our perceptions about the appearances. Later on sometimes we may appreciate the changing appearances of an object by changing light sources (like in different times of day, especially in natural sceneries. Here, there is less contributions of our senses or our observations but it is the observations of others that made us learn to observe. We learn these kinds of observations. Hence these kinds of observations are reflective observations and the perceptions we develop are reflective perceptions. The artists though naturally genius but still has to learn the colors, shades, distances and dimensions or simply the observations and making perceptions to become able to contribute master pieces. We can say he has to develop reflective perceptions to become able to grasp more real appearances.
Still what appear to us are not real. We have to attend the schools, colleges and universities to know about their chemical compositions, crystal structures, or molecules, atoms, subatomic particles and forces that bind them in particular arrangements to appear in large. The appearances of the objects in these levels are out of reach of our senses. It is the instruments like spectrometers that provide glances and the imaginations of scientists that create their models that could explain their appearances. For making these kinds of observations we need an aided senses which are scientific instruments designed for aided observations. We have to spend years in schools, colleges and universities to learn how to make aided observations and make aided perceptions. These aided observations are the reflective observations that we learn from scientists and science teachers. Hence the perceptions we develop are the reflected perceptions that we learn.
Now we extend our perceptions of the world we live in to the perceptions of ourselves that we make about ourselves. As I mentioned earlier that a large part of our world views, which determine our feelings, emotions, thinking processes and our responses are determined and developed before our birth. But still what we think of ourselves that what we are? We try to be original. Most of the time we struggle to modify our environments and also make ourselves distinct from others. We love to be unique and hence we use our free wills to be unique and make an identity and life styles particular to us. We also love to take responsibilities to project and prove our abilities and uniqueness. Here is what most love to call themselves existentialist. The concepts of the existentialism emerged from the desires of uniqueness.
Though uniqueness is an important factor in developing the perceptions of ourselves about ours but what are more important are the reflections that we get from others. We struggle hard to make our image positives and unique. What is this image? It is the perceptions of others about us. When people express their opinions about us, it affects deeply on our perceptions about ourselves in our own eyes. If people think of us important then we also start giving ourselves importance. Contrary, if people regard us as antisocial then slowly we accept this position and think of ourselves as antisocial. It is the reflections of others that we think is more real than our own perceptions about ourselves. We may aware of our creativity and tries to polish it but we need the reflections of others to prove it. We present our works as proofs of our creativity and closely monitor the responses of others. If people consider it highly creative then we struggle harder to produce more creative works. If the people consider it a low creative work then we try to find what high creative works are and tries to find and create accordingly. Here it is the reflections of people that shape the perceptions of ours about us. It is not limited to creativity and creative works. All of us related to any profession are dependent on the reflections of others. Hence whatever we think of ourselves is the result of reflective existence.
We have mentioned that our concepts of our essence is rooted in our world views and a large parts of our world views are determined before of our birth hence a large part of our essence are determined by society in which we born in that. After our birth we start to develop our world view both by learning as well as by developing ourselves distinct and unique from others. It makes our existence. The change in our developments of world views also changes and modifies our concept of essence and existence. Hence it is why we call it, “Existence complement essence”. Our essence affect our existence and our existence effect our essence.
Reflective Existentialism (Part: 2)
Application of Reflective existentialism
In introduction of reflective existentialism we have seen that a large part of our perceptions about ourselves are the result of reflections of others about us. Still we love to be unique and distinct from others and so we try hard to develop ourselves distinct from others. Freedom of thoughts, expressions and actions play vital role in developments of individualistic distinctions but these individualistic distinctions and uniqueness is never struggles of separations but enriching the society. These struggles of distinctness enrich culture and knowledge and introduce new traditions. This is a mechanism of growth of society. If our personalities and perceptions of ourselves about us are in large part the result of reflections of others so the individualistic trends are reflections of individuals over society. The individuals succeed achieving a level of distinctions and acceptance in uniqueness inspires and influences others.
Now as we come to application of reflective existentialism, it guides us in our life styles particularly in our relationships. There are two distinct types of individuals that are known as male and female. The distinctions of male and female are reflective and hence they have reflective existence. We are familiar about a movement by name of feminism which is deeply rooted in existentialism and individualism. On contrary to traditional existentialism, reflective existentialism accepts neither feminism nor masculinism. Female and male is not different species of Homo sapiens. Throughout of the history we find dominantly a complementary relationship between male and female. Male and female are incomplete without each other. They complement each other. This complementary role is not limited to inheritance and continuation of human race but to achieve higher goals. We can’t think of a human society without cooperation of male and female and more important we can’t think of human civilization without cooperation of male and female. Male and female complement each other biologically, psychologically, socially, economically and politically. It is unfair to use flaws in social, economical and political systems to make the male and female two distinct species that compete with each other over resources and positions. When we say the male and female complements each other then it is the responsibility of both male and female to struggle against flaws in systems and try to develop a system that suit in best manners their complementation.
The core principle of reflective existentialism, is sharing. Reflective existentialism value life, liberties and pursuits of happiness but here we share life, liberties and pursuits of happiness. Sharing of liberties means struggle to evolve society by expression of individual distinctness and by sharing our distinctness by others. We share our liberties by others to ensure a real liberty. If one’s liberties are costing other’s occupations and suffering, we simply hate these liberties because these are not liberties but tyrannies. Sharing is good but does it not provide legitimacy to dominant forces in society to confiscate the liberties of people? No we do not put just words in air to be misinterpreted and use as slogan to rule on others. Sharing simply means justice to self and to society. The justice is based on calculated discipline.
Let’s understand it by looking to present sharing that we have presently. When we accept the nationality of a nation state then we accept to share some of our liberties to services that government promises us. We share a part of our earning to governments in forms of taxes. Our earning is our economic liberty. BY paying taxes we share our economic liberty. We have certain political and cultural opinions which are our liberty of thoughts but they may be contradictory to national security, so despite of our disagreements we compromise to the decisions that governments passes collectively. This political compromise is sharing of our liberty of beliefs and opinions to society. We may be angered by some actions of government or society and we want to express them. If we express them as our anger are, it may result in riots, killings and lootings of others, so calm down ourselves and think of ways to express it that is lawful and acceptable to others. Hence it is our sharing of liberty of expressions. We want to steer ourselves by deciding our future ourselves. It is stressed in existentialism by means of free wills and responsibility but we share our liberty of free will and responsibility also to government. There are departments of governments, which decide about education, trades, defense, construction works, finances, social services etc. All these decisions directly affect our lives as they determine our education, jobs, well beings, health, security and responsibilities. It is the sharing of our free wills and responsibilities. We provide the responsibility of our defense and protections to government, as we are not let ourselves to hold arms and use it. We also put judgments of our actions to courts and accept if our actions are against the laws we have to be punished.
In above paragraph, we have given some examples of our sharing. Though there are a lot of sharing that are not just and are designed to accumulate wealth and power for the making powerful more powerful. By sharing liberties we simply means to understand the nature of complementary relationships that we have and have to make it based on justice and love that help us evolve individually as well as collectively as human being.
Now come to our concept of sharing of complementary existentialism. We explain here the most debated aspect of sharing and that is the relationship of male and female as making the most basic unit of society that is family. When a male and female reach puberty and become able physically, mentally and socially to construct a family he and she are going to create a part of future of human beings. Certainly both male and female have choices in choosing their life partners but the reflective existentialism tells neither male nor female are complete in their selves. No matter one is male or female has strengths and weaknesses. If the strengths make them distinct so their weaknesses make them vulnerable. Both a female and male has to realize that no one is complete and has strengths and weaknesses. By keeping this in mind when a male and female choose their partners they have acceptances of weaknesses. One a couple decides to construct a family they both complements each other. A female aware of weaknesses of male safeguard his weaknesses by her strengths and a male aware of weaknesses of female safeguard her by his strengths. Hence both become a single entity and identity when interact with society. They are no more vulnerable due to their weaknesses as their each one’s strengths is shared to cover another’s weaknesses and vice versa.
The family as a shared entity is the foundations of society, culturally, economically and politically. Just like male and female complement each other so the families. Certainly, families have weaknesses and strengths and the sharing of strengths make them less vulnerable. It is what we call we love life, liberties and pursuits of happiness but we share our lives, liberties and pursuits of happiness in order to complement each other. It is what we call complementary existentialism or reflective existentialism.
Reflective Existentialism (Part: 3)
In pursuits of life
Human being has developed two distinct methodologies in pursuits of truth and that are deduction and induction. Here we use these two methods for pursuits of desirable life. Certainly, the people have religions, ideologies, cultures and traditions which devise mechanisms for livings but still there are large gapes to be filled by free will. Here decisions in gapes or filling the gaps are make us distinct from each other. When we talk of pursuits of life we have no discussions about religions, cultures, traditions and ideologies but we only discuss about these gapes. Now when the matters of discussion are clear, we try to use induction and deduction in pursuits of life.
In human life the sources of deductions are heavily dependent on their past lives or history. Here we try to analyze some of the deductions in history and then going for our inductions from future and make correlations with creativity. Traditional existentialism deduces that we are condemned to be free. We are alone and abandoned to be free. We have free will to choose and we have to accept the consequences. The abandonment and freedom bring to us despair. These are the voices come of the occupation of France by Germany in Second World War. Certainly, when the world start seizing the sharing of strengths and exploiting the weaknesses, then we are really condemned and abandoned to be free. Here we have to face the consequences of our actions with despair. Wartime is the peak of the abandonment and condemnation especially one a nation or group of people are under occupation or facing defeats. Occupations and defeats divide a nation and victories unite a nation. These are the true deductions of history. But still under occupations and defeat war time reveal sacrifices that people and individuals make for each other. The sharing of life, liberties, opportunities and happiness increases in wartimes. The destroyed families and individuals share everything to construct new families and new social orders. They share resources to build new nations out of ruins. It is also deductions that are made from history. It is experienced by Sartre himself also but the notions of abandonment were stronger due to shock of defeat and occupations that these sharing looked so negligible to be compared.
Situation is a strong reason in human hands for making deductions. A thief caught while stealing a piece of bread can reason that I was hungry for many days that I thought my life is endangered so I stolen the bread just for my survival. All our pity goes in favor of this individual. We will protest the society for flaws and biased systems that have failed in taking care of citizens. But someone can say no! It is not fault of systems governing society but it is the human nature to steal. If this individual’s situation compelled him to steal what about the millionaires and billionaires who steal not over an individual but steal over society. Do their lives are threatened if they do not cheat the society and steal their resources. Again if someone reason that it is the system’s faults that make them able to steal. He will say no, it is not system’s fault but human nature to steal. If you make any kind of systems again they will find ways to cheat over society, so you will never succeed to overcome human nature of stealing. Neither education, culture, morality, religions can’t stop them nor the system of punishments can prevent and stop them. Human will never stop stealing because it is their nature. I accept that both evils and good are part of human nature and we can’t stop them but we can promote good to prevail and dominate evils.
Another deduction that we make from history is about the reflective existentialism. In reflective existentialism it is stressed that human complements each other by sharing their strengths to overcome the weaknesses that they have. We have mentioned as an example that when a male and female choose to be life partners and construct a family they accepts each others with their weaknesses and strengths and complements each other by sharing strengths and covering each other’s weaknesses by their strengths. Similarly the families can complements each other. In history of men especially in ancient Persian and India the concept of sharing of families become so specialized that in ancient India it took shape of caste system that is a biased and non humane practice and adaptation. In ancient Iran there were families which specialized in particular trades and they limited their arts to their own families and passed to next generations within their own families. Reflective existentialism does not mean such kind of sharing that make individuals determined their positions and trades. Reflective existentialism does value individual’s creativity and capabilities to be distinct in any stage of their personal developments. We call the sharing of strengths as increasing ratio of cooperation as compared to competition.
It is not the just reflective existentialism’s slogan but a historical deduction. The evolution has thought us that less evolved organisms in terms of intelligence depend more on competitions than cooperation. In contrast more evolved organism in terms of intelligence depends on cooperation than competitions. The reason is simple when organisms become too much competitive then competitions become difficult as a mechanism of survival but cooperation. Certainly cooperation requires a higher level of intelligence and that is creativity. It is the higher level of intelligence that we stress in the reflective existentialism. We share our life, liberties, resources and happiness to accommodate and evolve higher levels of intelligence. Higher levels of intelligence are both learned and generated. When it comes to sharing of strengths then knowledge, creativity, acceptance and tolerance are the most desired ones. When it comes to overcome weaknesses then ignorance, intolerance, rejection and non acceptance are first ones to be overcome. Reflective existentialism is never support the development of limiting trades to certain families, castes and social groups that their professions become their identity and they were treated based on their professional identities. It is against human dignity and distinctiveness of individuals. However, the creative sharing of families can promote individual distinctiveness, creativity and more economical and social freedoms. Families can arrange community mess, care center, clubs, educational centers, community financing and exchange of services and goods etc depending on the requirements of families, resources and creativities. These levels of cooperation are really evolutionary as they are the source of economical, political and social freedoms and well beings.
After the deductions, we come to induction. The home of creativity is imaginations. It is imaginations that can reconcile the irreconcilables. Imaginations are total freedom. Its limits are only human capability to imagine. As imaginations are infinite so we call it nothingness. The creative ideas come out of nothingness and infinity but when they come into workable ideas then they become limited. When can’t guess even about our own imaginations. The same is true for future. Future is unlimited and infinite and hence is considered as nothingness. But it is the home of all sorts of possibilities. What are looking impossible in present are possible in future. What is the basis of our claims? The history is there to support us. There are countless things in present world that weren’t thinkable in past, from airplanes, to railways, to mobiles, to computers, to satellites, to quantum physics, to black holes, to decoding of human genomes to nuclear fission, etc.
What if we correlate the future to human imaginations and creativities? This concept is very important to reflective existentialism. It asks individuals and people that as they see their reflections into past and stick to past as the sources of their identity, culture and essence so they have also future which also reflects them. A reflective existentialist looks to future as his or her reflection. He or she wants to see him or herself in future. It requires imaginations. The only way to go to future is imaginations. Imaginations are roads to future. There is no limit in future except of our imaginations. Our imaginations today will be the fact of tomorrow. Why no one can say, what will be there 30 or 40 years later because the imaginations are imagining the impossible into possibilities? A reflective existentialist takes his or her imaginations as future and creates the future to see him or herself.
TO SHAKE HAND WITH WISDOM
(A random view of random world)
By khuda dad azara
General conceptions of wisdom:
There are several general perspectives on wisdom. In one such general trend it is believed that practicing wisdom (The pursuit of truth) is an effort to compensate the material needs that one has failed to get or unable to get. If it is the case, then all rich men must be fool or become fool. It means that as men progress economically they must unconsciously slow down thinking and rethinking or loss interests in pursuit of truth. Another misfortune is that wisdom is what that has been restricted only to the philosophy, a branch of knowledge that most escape from it. Philosophers didn’t touch the common aspects of life which are of interest to the common people. It is here that all can’t realize the levels of perceptions so there is a lot of confusions prevail in societies. Confused men in efforts to reduce confusions added in confusions. Arts and literature that are the battle fields of creative people are also infected from these confusions but in a modest manner.
Abstraction as an alternative mechanism to wisdom:
Abstraction as a modern medium of expression highlights the confusions and the confused. Abstraction made aware the modern men, of their confusions but not guided them to come out of these confusions. Literature and arts, under the title of Abstraction were just the pictures of hopeless modern men. The most amazing side of abstraction is the infection of mathematics in the name of probability. In fact probability is an infant un-certainty. The absence of a mechanism, to infer or to solve, led men to conclude that the solution of randomness is randomness. The same is in common life. Men in their routine life are more random due to their lack of approach or inference and their laziness. Now days the abstraction, became a fashion among modern men. Even the centers of logic of men have infected by abstraction. It is really shame for mankind to announce their tiresome and accept their defeat and satisfy themselves by random searching in darkness as a methodology. Leader ships were just walking in shades of philosophy, which in search for new ways had forgotten long confused men and environments of modernity.
Modernity as an intellectual expression:
Modernity is neither purely intellectual expression nor it is true face of liberty of modern men. It is the synthetic lens of nakedness that businessmen introduced to fulfill the needs of markets and to create new markets. This lens is incapable of forecasting the future, as it shows dimensionless ways that modern men perceived it as liberty. Everyone is silent, as they can see their own weaknesses but can’t perceive the weaknesses of dimensionless world. Future of the modernity is unpredictable just like the stock exchange. Modern men need to concentrate all their wisdom to re define and re organize their economic systems. Economic system is what that give birth to all disciplines. Justice is what can absorb and wash out all the troubles and sorrows of men for all the time, so men need not to define and shape justice through economic systems but define and shape economic systems by justice.
Relativity as evidence in court of time:
Time.... is the theme of welfare and success. It is what the history calls itself, its face. Decisions wait to weight themselves through it. It is what men wish to hold from all its ends but always remain in its starts. Men when could not understand that whether it passes, flows, run or men themselves walk through it they divided it in three pieces for past, present, and future. Neither their past has a start nor does their future have an end. Their failures mourn and their hopes wait in it. Their minds think to find a purpose for it that they could make a value for themselves in their own eyes. Time is always there but when the mortality of men becomes evident, they start looking to time in context to the duration of their own lives. Relativity is in fact the acceptance of mortality of men. Men always will be prosperous if they do not just try to understand the relativity but to accept it as a fact. Relativity with all its visibilities asks for justice. It makes visible the abilities to accelerate is relative and not absolute so let the justice to rule by giving everyone its proper positions according to their abilities. In red land of wars under rule of injustice, wisdom is always slaughtered by emotions. It is the white land of peace under rule of justice that wisdom kiss everyone and make even slightest visible to recognition. More familiarity with nature’s potential is not danger to the prosperity of men but they open new doors of prosperity. The real danger is to use these potentials to exploit fellowmen as expression of might and glory.
Sign board of Philosophy:
My main aim behind the writing was to break shell of philosophy that bounded the wisdom and erase the hesitation of people toward wisdom because of the sign board of philosophy. It was also aimed, to show that Abstraction is not the right medium that modern men labeled them with. Wisdom is the medium by which modern Arts and Literature can erase the shades of confusions that long erased the diversities of beauties and guidance. I am not claiming that I am going to introduce an absolute and complete system of thoughts that is sole line of wisdom. The present writing is my effort to start a trend of thinking and doing in a wise manner that start efforts which could lead in thinking and doing justice that may help in acquiring perfection and immortality.
To evolve, a society needs wisdom through wise men. It is evident that wisdom has very small magnetic fields around wise men. Wisdom requires to be diversified as the individuals in societies are diversified. The biggest cause of failure of wisdom to intrude hearts is distortions in nature of modern men. Wisdom as lmam ali (P.B.U.H) says, To save experiences and the best wisdom is one which has a moral.
Change is saving of experiences:
People save their precious things which assure ease in life, but there are very few people who intentionally save their experiences as assurance of ease in ever turning pages of life. Saving of wisdom is not an easy task. It is also one of the factors of its restrictions. To save wisdom one needs thinking and rethinking. What come out of the growing time needs disintegration and integration of experiences. Otherwise can be a memorial but not an immortal tool. The ability to integrate and disintegrate shows the capacity of a man to accept the changes. THE RESISTANCE TO CHANGE IN MODERN SYSTEM AND THINKING OF THEM AS AN UNLTIMATE SYSTEM FOR HUAMNITY IS IN FACT DISABILITY OF MODERN MEN TO ACCEPT CHANGE OR THINK OF CHANGE.
Change is zeal of desires. Real changes suck and explore the amazing contribution of abilities from people. Wisdom has roots in general truths. It nearly saves its place in the changes. Those who fail to reveal it in the new faces of changes; they treat it as an old fashioned and inapplicable. Wisdom must not be intermingled with facts. Facts awake the senses and wisdom awakes the intuitions. In its true nature wisdom is the personal freedom in innovations and choices. It is not just a shield in changes. It is in itself is change. Shallow thinkers failed in justifying the real nature of wisdom. They found an easy way of escaping from realities by slogans of liberty, expression of feelings. The pleasant and charming words are not what one may perceive. They are all trademarks that created to make herding of men easy.
Wisdom provides a vital tool to the modern men to diagnose the pleasant infections that have been infected by name of civilizations. It is not the true nature of humanity that rule on us but the greed of tradesmen that men follow. Men with borderless greed can border the liberties but can’t expand the borders of liberties. The modern men are really pitiable that while squeezing themselves in looking, civilized, doubt on them in harassing situation of the globe.
Modern men look synthetic like their products. They are searching their ways of life in minds of traders. Those who can read some of greed they proud on their shrewdness but don’t shame on weightlessness of their true desires. Modern men talk much about civilizations. What really civilization means.........? There is even speaks and writings about clashes and dialogues among civilizations. Civilization is a very advanced and evolved word that created before of its existence. To what men refer as civilizations are the primary efforts of men to ward such a big achievement. Groups of men that live together in villages, towns and cities are like organic cells that grow to achieve more organized forms of the life. These struggles for better organizations are called evolution. The different societies that men developed through history are really running toward more organizations but they are still within the cells. There are very primitive levels of organization among the human societies. Among the societies and within the societies still thoughts exist to eliminate other groups of mankind. In this context the evolution of human’s societies are too primitive to be called civilized. The efforts that global unions and organizations made may deceive men of claiming the global village, but they much realize that closing of senses are too different from closing of feelings. It is fact that there is not much distance among bodies but it is also fact that there are large distances among hearts. By developing the technologies men decreased the distances among their bodies. It is the time that men start nourishing wisdom to decrease the distances among hearts.
Wisdom is a behavior:
Wisdom is a behavior, as it is function of wise men. Like other behaviors it can take the form of trends. Trends are what that shapes the life styles and become recognitions of the societies. Shrewdness is also a behavior that most noble members of societies posses. It is the most accepted trend in practice and many may perceive it as wisdom. It is evident that shrewdness is a function of intelligence, but it is used in pursuit of power instead of truth. Wise men pursuit truth and they consider morals and virtues as their discipline of persuasion. Shrewd pursue flaws in moral, virtues, laws, interests…etc, and even create flaws that make them ways short and easy to power. Just like shrewdness there are trends that may perceive wisdom in mistake. Access of information are also perceived as preach of wisdom. Some thought an informed man is a wise man. By a review all around us we can find many examples of informed and aware men that doing wrong works. Many well educated officers involve in such activities that spoil their societies, bribery is the commonest one. Awareness may help to improve, but wisdom is a behavior that can be influenced by trends. Opposite of wisdom is ignorance which also does not mean lack of information. Ignorance means the persuasion of false and evils.
In order to make wisdom more exposed and clear, it is necessary that I take the help of an example. A general trend in society is the stress on enjoyment. It seems that people found enjoyment as key to the happiness. These words became popularized that, Life is a mixture of joys and sorrows. Either you are poor, rich, of any occupation, in any age, of any gender, of any nation or of any region there is neither complete joy nor complete sorrow. It is logical and wise to enjoy those moments of joys that life provides you. Promotions, immigrations and developments can improve but do not change the sequence. These words really charming as they according to the needs of modern time teach the people to shield against the tensions but they don’t distinguish among joys. The reasoning is wise if the enjoyments are from pleasure of personal and social welfare. But if the enjoyments are of excitements and sentiments of materialistic joys that are for the sake of joys then it will wipes out many moments of coming joys.
By keeping in mind that wisdom is the saving of experiences, we must also consider what kind of morality will be deduced out of these experiences. One thing is clear that moralities are greatly influenced by the ideologies. Anything one experienced, he will interpret and justify it the ideology he posses. I interpret an aspect of modern life by my own ideology. It is what I feel as a young man to the changes and how I save my experiences. This kind of self evaluation will help me how ideologies influence experiences.
Crisis of identity in modern world:
One of the problems of the modern young men is their identity in the so called, global village. For century’s races, language, religions and their products were playing key roles in the identities. There is a trend among young men all over the world to be and look modern. This trend broke the shells of their identities, but question is that, Does modernity posses that much capability to give an identity….?.
It is what I thought; Absolute lost its identity in the last century. Relativity got a new identity in modern minds, but identity was confused with abstraction. Individualism rose to save identity. It was individualism that realized the strength of curiosity and creativity which lead men to the freedom of thought and action. Men refused to be any more enslaved by fate and superstitions. They Struggled for personal identities that were leading not lead by. It is the main theme of individualism that, by yourself identity you identity others and others identify you. Individualism still could not walk properly as the identity in diversity is the real challenge of the modern men in the global village. Diversity is not a function of abstraction but abstraction is a function of diversity of diversity.
Abstraction is putting modern men into social codes and the choices of men in social liberties. In this context gaining and maintaining identity isn’t just a matter of uniqueness as perceived. Uniqueness is the key to self identity but not at the level of perception that men today perceive. Men of uniqueness need a concrete base for their perception to save their identity in the flood of abstractions. Modern men perceived the thrill, fascination and confusion of abstraction as a best medium for self liberty and identity but a mirror with random facets has not good images. One of the dark sides that men of free wills must realize is the exposure and marketing of femininity as symbols of self identity. These kinds of trends are making shallow the perception of aesthetics, beauty and creativity and hence are devaluing the liberty. Liberty is the corner stone to identify.
Change which boost up individualism, also introduces new identities. Rapid changes mean hurricane for the existing identities. INDIVIDUALISTS MUST REALIZE THAT HISTORY HAS NO TITLE PAGE. The pages that are claiming the title pages of history are just efforts of disintegrations. History is a sequence of events not the random appraisals. Individualists can place well their identity if they realize the sequence of history. The sequence of changes is always there but its rate depends on men that create the events of history. Abstraction, uniqueness, change, liberty and their perceptions are the aspects of the modern world which must be addressed.
Identity needs a source. Source of knowledge is the key to identity. Muslims make their pursuits in identities through Islam, Christian through Christianity, Jews through Judaism, Buddhists through Buddhism, Hindus through Hinduism, Japanese through bushido and Shinto, socialists, communists, capitalist and liberals their ideologies.
Epistemology of individualism:
What is the source of knowledge of individualists? Is abstraction is their source of knowledge as they practice? Though abstraction has colored their every aspects of life but abstraction can’t be a source of knowledge. Abstraction is born out of confusion. Liberty is the gift of the modern world but it can’t be saved with abstraction. Liberty is blank but not confused. If the individualists could realize that, a man with an ideology is a man with an identity, and then they can project liberty as it is in its true nature. Individualists in making a concrete base for their identification must concern certain problems that like confusion erase the identities. For example poverty erase identity as it may allow a miserable life but does not give meaning to the life. Poor are human like, but do not look human in reality. Identity needs projection and exposure. Freedom of thought and action in making decisions give identity. This is what liberty assures, but poor and weak have no right to decide, and then decide on what? They are used in decisions by name of liberty but they are not allowed to decide. This is what, if does not addressed properly then all the slogans of liberty, humanity and equality are words that still do not born. Those who proud on these words they are just deceiving themselves. The above interpretation of one of the aspect of modernity is what I conceived though my ideology. While comparing my conception to the others I may find may many clashes.
The choosing of an ideology greatly affect the level of perception and hence truth. It is not here that the wisdom may fail to break the shells? My answer is still positive. Though there are ideologies that greatly may clash to each other but here is the wisdom itself that may help us in choosing more accurate one.
As stated earlier the wisdom is a behavior. If we adopt the behavior of persuading the truth then ideologies can’t influence us. It is what, that is true nature of liberty. When a child born, as he start growing certain sets inject into him by his environment. These behavioral sets are out comes of the prevailing ideology of his environment. These behavioral set are in reality swords of prejudices by which he shapes his conceptions.
Wisdom asks of such a man to liberate himself out of prejudices as liberty is blank. Then by a true desire seek the truth. To Such a man ideologies are accommodation, not flood of confusions.
Pursuits of truth:
The question may arise in mind that how to persuade the truth? All the men do not have the same level of perception so an idea can’t be acceptable for all. First it must be clarified that, what is the truth itself? Some may say that reasoning is the key to the wisdom. It is the same as what is the truth? Anything alone can’t be the channel way to the truth. A set of disciples may require for the comparison to the satisfaction of each. A man of knowledge can design a set of disciples for himself, then again it mean to making shell around the wisdom, because lay men require a ready and simple mean to the wisdom. Reasoning on the base of axioms is key to the wisdom and truth is what wisdom seeks. Reasons may be convincing using events and causes of events and hence mislead. Axioms of virtues justify the events, causes of events and sequence of events. Reasoning based on the justified events leads to the truth. Axioms of virtues are truth that does not require approval as they are in instinct of men as gifts of nature. Justice is the core of axioms by which we can measure the virtues. An action or thought is either disturbance of justice or acceptance of justice. Telling lie, killing, stealing, misbehaving, proud, back biting….etc all are actions that disturb the justice and do not require reasoning by how, where, and what. Logic and facts are the blood of reasoning but human life include more than facts. There are certain realities that go beyond the scope of logic and facts as men have emotions and sentiments that play key sole in human relationships. Intuition was always needs as a true guide of men that can cover limitation of logic and randomness of human feelings.
An example may illustrate the role plays intuition to decide in complexities. Telling lie is not acceptable_(1)…..killing is also not acceptable_(2)…….suppose there is a case in which by telling lie the life an innocent man can be saved, so your intuition may deduce a third axiom for you, tell lie to save the life of an innocent_(3)……………
In a discussion about wisdom, the description of human feelings is not useless as they are functions of human mind where wisdom is processed. Emotions and sentiments like love, hate, fear, feelings of happiness, sadness, security, insecurity…etc all are influential, as they impact on thinking. The medium of thinking may provide a weapon to cope or it may engulf the thinker by darkening the thoughts. The weapon of a medium is freedom and the darkening of a medium is imprisonment of perceptions.
Every period has its own trends, way of life, tradition, beliefs and ruling concepts, around which the life and thoughts of people revolve. As these concepts full fill the needs of that time, they also have some social pressures and sentimental aspects on the minds. So we can say that every period of time has its own conceptual imprisonments. What is called dark ages had superstition and strong belief on fates … as conceptual imprisonments which had imprisoned many aspects of mind by the mind inside the mind man were imprisoned by themselves inside themselves. Because of some prevailing ideas of the time, modern ages have conceptual imprisonments like ostentation, synthetic traditions. The social pressures of following the tradition do not impact equal to all the minds. Some minds may accept them as their boosting up tools, but some may do not found themselves ready to follow. Much of the energy of mind may lose in the balancing struggles. If the mind fails to balance, it may revolt in case of having considerable energy required for the determination or it may surrender, revolt in case of having conceptual imprisonments which had imprisoned May aspects of mind inside the mind. Men were imprisoned by themselves inside themselves, because of some prevailing ideas of the time. Modern ages have conceptual imprisonments like ostentation, synthetic traditions, style of life, identity…etc as symbols of modernity. The social pressures of following the tradition do not impact equal to all the minds. Some minds may accept them as their boosting up tools, but some may do not found themselves ready to follow. Much of the energy of mind may lose in the balancing struggles. If the mind fails to balance, it may revolt in case of having considerable energy required for the determination or it may surrender, as a prisoner of the conceptual imprisonments. The failure of minds makes the lives miserable. Wisdom is there to all men, all the time, to lead towards liberty. Wisdom is tool, by which one can deduce the real needs of the external world and internal world. He neither escapes from crowds nor lose himself in the crowds. The minds that have decided clearly and ambitiously to pursuit the truth, they do not found imprisoned themselves into the ruling traditions or directions of societies.
The battle ground of real and ideal
Discussion and discussions like these, though were discussed by good wills, confused many minds. It is the discussion between reliability of ideal and real. Anything that goes beyond the senses generates mysteries, superstitions, and illusions. Easy is what that get into the senses without the visa, and simple is what that has singularity. The methods that men devised for the quest into the real nature of things were never simple and easy. In spite of indulging in discussion that whether ideal is real or not, it is more required that whether ideal is applicable to the world of senses or not?
Ideal in actual provides markers of excellence. That is the bench marks for comparison to senses into the wilderness of dimensions. Intuition in senses can purify the concepts to shield against ambiguities but senses need hardware. From an object ideas can arise but only ideas can’t shape that object according to approach to fulfill needs of senses. The equipments are desires. For molding the object into the required shape of an idea, objects must be used. It is a fact that everyone experience and practice. To me the solution of a problem lies in nature of that problem. So for the idealistic problems mind must get directions of ideals and for the hard world mind must get direction of hard ware’s it is a fact that hardware can’t run without soft ware that is the product of mind but it is also a fact that software can’t show its existence without hard ware. For the purpose of excellence, etc, is the product of mind but it is also a fact the desires are applicable to the excellent hard ware and excellent hardware require excellent software. I deduce that man must not try to colloid or separate hard world of senses and soft worlds of minds. It is better men struggle to evolve soft world as well as hard world to achieve excellence. Collision and separations have only one product and that is confusion. There are several advantages that mind posses over world of senses that encourage and generate idealistic behaviors. The biggest advantage is the force of imagination. In imagination, there is no restriction but there are all accommodations to what you build and perceive. It is what that makes mind master to rule on hard wares. It is the master hood of mind and its capability to insert into minds that created countless illusions as well as mile stones in the relations and about the nature of hard ware’s and mind.
By re considering the definition of the wisdom, as savings of experience, there looks to touch another side of experience. It is the relation between experience and creativity, experiences were all the time with men, but creativity having shaken up the men from time to time. Creativity is what the modern man needs to run with. Every experienced is not creative are experienced. For creative experiences walk side by side. There is three general classification of creativity, active, intermediate and dull. Creative are active in particular fields, because they are interested in that fields, hence we can say that passion is key to the creativity. Those that are dull in particular fields can’t be dull in all fields. They are dull because they are not passionate. Those that are intermediate, they don’t believe on their passion.
Is creativity teachable?
The question arise that, is it possible to teach the creativity or generate creativity? The answer is yes. Passion as a sentiment can be influenced. The ability to understand ones interests as well as the direction and environment to boost up his interests may awake his passion in that direction. Passion is a solid thing. It has degrees that up and down from time to time and from person to person. The great men whose works shook the men were extensive passionate in their fields. There are still certain factors that control the creativity. Knowledge and understanding of something may generate the passion. May times needs become passion. Love with him or with anybody else also sometimes work to generate the passion. Here the main focus is lover but because of the love of the lover he lover that field. Experience is a ready tool in needs but creativity needs investments of time, mind and capital to become a workable tools it is the difference of investments that small businesses prefer or can afford to hire experienced workers. The big businesses hire experienced and creative workers as they can afford the creativity needs. It is why they introduce new products.
Wisdom is not the name of something definite but it is a word that represents a process. a process of thinking. Process can be of several types and of certain levels. Even a single process can be rough and more and more refined. It is on the type and level of process that level of perception matters. Why there is blockage of wisdom, while there are plenty of knowledge and examples… do we need techniques to improve this process or material that could continue this process or we need anything else….?
Science with its most practical and valid techniques and methodology uncover the facts. The techniques based on nature provide us accurate and plenty of results. Men have rich heritage of wise men. Every field of knowledge has specialists and high qualified men, but again we feel a blockage on wisdom. All these indicate we need wise men, because wise men are not the product of wise men. Who is wise man? What he does? And how he does?
There is no satisfactory mechanism that through which wise men could develop. If such a mechanism existed then there were certain institutions that produced thousands of wise men every year. There were wise men whose life and ideas shook the world. They certainly related to certain institutions and teachers. Many others also related to these institutions and teachers but they didn’t prove themselves wise enough that could shake the world. The qualities of wise men described. Not all wise men have brought up though same situations. Certainly there are levels of abilities in men, but what make clearer the differences are the qualities that wise men posses not abilities. Ambition, passion, Courage, Honesty, Purpose, Familiarity with inner self, are the qualities that make abilities unique that wisdom kiss them.
How these qualities can be important in understanding or evaluating the wisdom? Take the example of courage. The importance of is due to opposition. A man with courage faces the opposition, but how to handle the opposition to not spoil the purpose is the matter of abilities. The judged use of abilities is wisdom. A faithful man is always in struggle of developing these qualities. Faithful men with an average level of abilities live comfortable lives due to lack of mistakes steered by these qualities. All faithful men are not wise but they have put in ways of wisdom. Wisdom needs abilities and qualities, reinforced by courage to make its own ways. The following is a simple formula, helping in understanding of the wisdom, though wisdom does not always follow the formula.
Courage abilities ways out of opposition wisdom
In the explanation of this formula, one thing I much is adds that the courage that rises from the needs is not of continuously increasing type. It walks along with the needs and can’t fly up too much beyond the needs. Familiarity, danger of survival…etc are some examples of needs. The real courage is the courage is that born out of the passion. It increases with growing passion and fly beyond every boundaries even the last boundary of life.
A wise man is not always wise everywhere and every fool is not fool everywhere, because wisdom and foolery are not absolute qualities but is complementary to each other. The addition of wisdom is the subtraction of foolery. It is the quality of justice loving that guides the ability of his deduction to deduce from functional words of mathematics, as I deduced in following paragraph. Men think of themselves very clever. They think that they developed the functional words (+,-, %, x, etc) to rule the transformations. There are many who think adding is the base of all functions. By adding they subtract, divide, and multiply. They have forgotten that there are rule of equation on universe. If they are adding in something the subtraction takes place on the other side of equation. If they multiply in something, division of some another thing takes place automatically on other side of equation. If men are subtracting consciously they are adding unconsciously. If they are dividing something they are multiplying unintentionally. Men can, t create the matter but they can transform it, and functional words help them understanding the rates of transformation, but equality always remain there. If it were not the case, there are calculations that the transformation of carbon into organic compounds has taken place to many time that are the volume of earth since the generation of like on the earth.
Neither the whole earth is composed of organic not the organic material over flow from earth. The quantity of carbon always remains same though, the transformation rates may very. All the miseries of societies are rooted in not understanding, or considering the equation. They don, t consider subtraction while adding and not consider the multiplication while dividing. History of men is filled with ideas that great men thought to end the in equality of men kind. One of these thoughts is that it is possible to equalize the men by bringing a single hybrid race instead of pure races. Lets judge this idea by applying it to producers of life that are not only the first in chains and cycles of life but also contain the primitive forms of life. Suppose men succeed in bringing a single hybrid plant instead of vast diversities of plants, herbs and shrubs…etc, what would this equation means, the extinction of life nothing else if it is unsuitable for plants so how it could be for most evolved form of life that is human being and it could bring peace and prosperity for them. if all men become physically same again their creativity, passion of quest and inquiry would not satisfy them in equality. In equality is in nature of men and it is different from justice. The peace and prosperity of men is not hidden in efforts of making equal the men but in justice. Earlier I stated that wisdom is the function of wise men, but all educated men think of themselves as wise men, while that is not evidenced. What is the reason that educated men think so..? With better explanations the level of learning increases and perceptions became clear. Because educated men learn the explanations of wise men so their become men of visions so they think of themselves as wise men. For better explanations there are needs of the techniques. A very simple technique in learning, thinking and explaining is returning to the history of the considered topic. History starts from very basic and simple and walks to the advanced and complex. A model of such technique is as follows:
Politics.......... > Conflict + Power...................................... > History
Economy................ >(Services + Goods) + their distributions
Logic............... > Similarity and differences ..................... > Validity of thoughts
Aesthetics .................... > Imaginative creations + Perceptions
Ethics.......... >Goodness and badness of actions ............... >evaluation of events
The above technique is in fact, the tools of philosophy, but is of best ones in service of wisdom. They can explain the capacity of one in decisions and actions in maximum and minimum. They guide the intentions, how to get the capacities needed for decisions and actions. I do not mean that wise men are those who restrict themselves to history but I mean as decisions and actions are the writers of future so in coming histories at least the mistakes of past must not repeat again though the cycles of processes are facts. The forms that fill the cycles must be proud able.
It is assumed that primitive men due to lack of any proper methodology and unfamiliarity to the meaning of things were thinking abstractly. Gradually when men start realizing the nature of things they start devising methodologies for better understanding of the nature of things. Men traveled the distance from primitive life from unknown point of history to modern ages to modern ages may be in thousands of years. The most amazing thing is that the modern after many triumphs of men in fields of knowledge again took the way of abstraction as the primitive men followed. The main reason the, principle of uncertainty,, but the abstract art also made common in practice due its popular mode. As the principle of uncertainty is concerned, it is due to blockage of methodology, which is evidenced in the use of abstraction in mathematics. Any new and proper methodology that could give a new approach to the nature of things can wash out the abstraction. The bitterest side of abstraction is the abstract art, which is the reflection of confusion of modern men. These confusions are rooted in unjust systems that shape the lives of modern men. The answer of this abstraction is justice that is the most wanted but extinct thing in modern ages…
Experience as wisdom:
Everyone is wise to some extent but degree of wisdom differs among individuals and groups of people. How we determine who is wise? Let’s have a general to special approach to wisdom. It was a tradition in villages and suburban areas where doctors are scarce to consult to an old experience women for troubleshooting in child caring. The same method was used in solving the social problems. For solving disputes the old men were consulted and their decisions were accepted. These old women and men were the source of wisdom for those people. For these people wisdom were equal to experience. These old men and women had experienced these types of problems several times in their lives so their decisions were more practical. They had the knowledge of local vegetations, animals, regions, traditions, cultures and they knew most of the individuals and families and their histories so their solutions and opinions were wiser than others. There is a famous Hazaragi sayings that, “experienced men are more reliable than doctor”.
The same method is practiced in modern days but here despite of the experienced men and women there are experienced professionals. The experienced professionals make firms and provide consultancy to private organizations, businesses and governments. This is also an acceptance of experience as wisdom because the private organizations, businesses and governments have their own professionals but lack the experience of the consultants.
Success as wisdom:
Another aspect of wisdom that is commonly accepted is success. Successful individuals are accepted as wise men. People consult related successful persons for solving their problems. This concept of wisdom is also accepted to most modern people. People take ideals and some approach the successful people in the field they wish to master in order to make their success assured. Here success wipes out the factor of age and experience.
Leadership as wisdom:
Leadership is another factor of wisdom that is commonly accepted. People look to their leaders as wise men. This concept of wisdom is weakened and is going to be more dimming as time is passing. There are several reasons and factors that this concept of wisdom is weakening. The most significant reason is the modern politics. In modern politics the mass media has a vital role in making images of politicians and these politicians rely heavily on their images. Politicians make lies in order to achieve their political objectives. The media helps politicians in their lies both in making image of them and also breaking images of opponents for political benefits. Most of these lies are done under patriotism, nationalism and national security. Even patriotism makes lies more acceptable than truths. Here wisdom means making such lies that overshadow truths in order to achieve a certain objectives. These perceptions of politicians make people rely more on the prejudices and benefits rather than on wisdom.
But these concepts are not equal in all places. The sources of leaderships differ in different cultures and societies. In some cultures and societies still leadership is a source of wisdom. Most of these leaderships come from spiritual and religious leaderships. As religion and knowledge that come from spirituality is considered as absolute knowledge so the representatives of these knowledge is also considered as a source of wisdom. Sometimes, the misuse of the knowledge or due to political participations these leaderships become questionable but the knowledge itself is unshakable and there are always devoted scholars that will provide alternative leaderships. This leadership is believed as a source of wisdom to their followers.
Professionals as wisdom:
Another aspect of the wisdom that is related to modern world is professionalism. Modern men developed beliefs on the professionals and professionalism. The market economy helped it spread to the areas that were expected common to everyone. Though Professionalism is a positive aspect of modern world but it has drawbacks also as modern men specify their wisdom to the specific fields. Personal wisdom is going to be extinct in modern world.
What really is wisdom?
Certainly there are wise men whose wisdom changes the lives of people but these people do not belong to neither of said categories. They are neither experienced old men or women, successful men or women as people consider success and also they are neither professionals nor they are in leadership positions. So keeping this in view, what really is wisdom? I asked the same question from an inspirational lecturer.
He answered me with certainty, “Surely scholars are wise men”
I looked to him in astonishment and again asked, “OK! If the scholars are the wise men so do you think that wisdom is attainable?”
He replied, “Certainly that is true”.
I wasn’t satisfied by his short answers and again asked, “Scholars gain knowledge about facts or created facts. For example a sun rise in east and set down in west is a fact and is attainable. If the wisdom is the knowledge of facts then it is attainable but it is a common experience that the wisdom of people with same status of knowledge is different. Their response and acts in same situations are different and not only different but are of different levels. It seems to me that the wisdom is a matter of personal judgments.”
“I agree with you” He replied while nodding his head in confirmation.
By gaining his approval I added, “Is it not easy to understand the wisdom through accepted historic wise men?”
“That is a good approach” He responded.
“Most historic wise men like, Zarusthra, Gotham Buddha, Socrates, etc were searching for truth so searching for the truth is the criteria for wisdom.” I added more.
“You are on right path” He nodded as sign of approval.
“Though knowledge and experience is the basis of common wisdom that can be acquired and they are also the basis of the personal judgments but more important than all these is attitude and approach that one has. This develops a wisdom that is higher than common wisdom that people are mostly accustomed and that is the real wisdom that we seek and they open new ways for humanity.”
He was still expecting me to continue my opinion as he was listening with full attention so I continued,
“This type of wisdom that comes from search of truth mostly contradicts with established wisdom. The event of the trial of Socrates, the Socrates was blamed of corrupting the youths because he was encouraging the youths to think into facts and their nature to find the truth. So truth was as criteria for wisdom to Socrates”.
“So, do you think that established wisdom is not based on truths, it is why contradictions come out of thinking process?” he asked.
“Though the main reason for contradictions are prejudices and our profits that influence our thought processes in making established wisdoms but the thinking methodologies and approaches are also effects” I replied him.
“So you think that a thought process solely purposed to discover truth produce high level of wisdom that is missing in established wisdom rooted in prejudices?”
“Sure” I replied with zeal.
DRIVING AGENTS OF HISTORY
Role of nature in History of primitive men
History of men is different than history of earth and organisms in the sense that men have shaped their history by engineering their environments by knowing and working with natural processes. But as primitive men had lesser understanding of natural processes as well as had not mastered in using natural processes so it is natural to think of earlier humn history dominated by natural processes. Just like jigsaw puzzle of North American continent and African plate led to idea of continental drift and later on plate tectonics so is the puzzle of presence of Red Indian on American continent, presence of Aborigian in Australian continent and Japanese and other South China sea islands in stone age. Rocks have records of several ice ages in earth history but last ice age is very important to men as they can trace their history to that ice age or at least can explain the presence of human populations in distant lands that surrounded by vast and deep water bodies. How those primitive men could cross these oceans while they had not the technological advances that needed for crossing those oceans? Ice age provides us the clues for land connections. As vast areas of water bodies began to freeze and the level of the oceans start dropping, it may provided the chance to cross the oceans. American Indians did not have horses domesticated before European settlers may indicate that primitive men of that age may had not succeeded in introducing the animals in their daily life or it is also possible the animals like horses could not survive in their journey in crossing the freezing waters. These crossing may be occurred 50,000 BC as there are evidence of human occupation in the Northern Territory of Australia which dates back to 52,000 years.
The Asians are even older as the native Australian and Americans migrated from Asia to those lands. Our discussion is not how old is human but how men made their history and what made men’s history. The early migrations of men are the earliest records of the prehistoric times. Before the migrations men were present on the surface of the earth. Migration of primitive men correlates with migration of other organisms that are in mercy of nature. It was harsh cold environment of ice age that both forces men as well as facilated them to migrate and hence dominate the earth. From first major migration in ice age to later migrations of nomadic tribes we see the role of migration as an empire creating process. Migration is a natural process that still shaping and reshaping human history.
Creativity carves history
Historians divide the history of main in broad classes of pre historic times, ancient history, medieval history and the modern history. In pre historic times men did not recorded their history so the sources of our information about them are just from their remains as their tools, housing, etc. We divided the pre historic times in Stone Age, Bronze Age and Iron Age. Chinese cave dwellers in the northern china date back to the 500,000 years ago.
The Stone Age clearly indicate certain things,
1) Primitive men were mostly habitant of mountainous areas as mountains were providing ready shelter as caves and were source of their instruments (stones). Nature were limiting the choices of primitive men and driving their actions.
2) As most of mountainous areas are cold regions so primitive men were mostly inhabitants of cold areas.
These two things make human different from the human like animals that are believed as their ancestors. Primitive men must be the inhabitant of cold regions so they can survive the ice ages and could migrate through the land connections between continents during ice age. The stone tools indicate that men were curious and intended to save themselves from hazards of nature or overcome their weakness by force of nature. Men were always aware of the creativity, so they save their activities and not waited for nature fossilizes their activities. The stones tools make evident that the first agent of the human history is the creativity of men. Stone tools are not remaining of kings, politicians, lords, traders but they are the remains of creative artisans, so the first pace of human history is their creativity. The migrations of men from continents to continents is search of food and shelter are also indicate their curious nature as well the role of activity in making history .Though they had not recorded the history of their migration but absence of technological advances and the spread of human population in far land clearly indicate their migration. This migration caused differences of races languages, culture; customs religion they had not recorded the history of their migrations but the absence of technological advances and the spread of human populations in faar land clearly indicate their migrations. The migrations caused differences of races, languages, cultures, customs, religions and behaviors which later on shaped the human history. The settlement of men in suitable lands is also indicates that the migrations of men were not instinct as today we evidence in other animals. The settlement of men on plain areas is also the sign of improvement of their creativity or in other words their creativity made possible for them to settle in plains where natural shelters like caves were absent. Animals were and are also migrating in search of food, shelter and suitable places for reproduction but they had not settled like men to develop societies with particular distinctions. Bronze and Iron Ages are of revolutionary changes in the lives of primitive men as they shifted from Stone Age into the metal ages. Bronze could not be turned into tools without the discovering methods fire and methods of intensifying the fires. Iron is high melting metal so require high temperatures. Men with simple stone tools must had totally different life styles than men with metal tools, so it makes clear what difference the creativity can cause in lives and also how they influence the history. Men with swords, spears, and carts would fell strength and they would first time wish to conquer and rule the first settlements. If we say the human civilization started in the metal age it would not be false. The discovery of metals, their characteristics and their use in making different tools and instruments were all the result of human creativity which changed the human attitude and behaviors. The beliefs that primary men had would also determined their life style as one use the tools according to his concepts and perceptions of his surroundings so the primary men were not among the exceptions. Beliefs are also show the creativity but all men had were not just the result of creativity. The active people played more vital role than the creative people in early history of men because the rate of creativity is too slow than the rate of activity. Early history of men is just the descriptions of kings, lords and generals, their wars and their methods of ruling. If there are constructions, discoveries, inventions or anything also they are credited to the kings. It is just recently that men are showing interests in creativity because they have experienced the results of creativity and hence are interested to understand the roe creativity in the human history. The god and goddesses that early civilizations like Egyptians, Greeks and Romans worshipped depicts their needs and interests. Egyptians god and goddesses are the combinations of humanly bodies with heads of different animals which reveal their concerns about their environments and everyday lives, e.g., Amun Re, Pharaoh with double plumed crown, falcon was son god. The son is the source of energy and light on earth. Khepri, with beetle head is to make the sun rise and bring fertility to land. The only source of their life hood was faring. Sobek, crocodile headed was the god of water, the whole life of Egyptian was depended on the river Nile. Anubis, jackal headed, was the god of mummifiction. The Egyptians was very conscious of the immortality. Isis, women wearing a sun disc and cow horn was protector of the dead and goddess of children. In the goddess they clearly expressed their wish of immortality after dead and in form of continuation of their race in the form of their children. Similarly they had goddess of love and beauty, god of learning and writing, god of storm and thunder and goddess of woe, etc. The belief in these gods and goddesses were in reality belief in search for forces that rule the nature of events. They found according to their evolution of minds those forces in form of those god and goddesses. It will require too much space to describe the god and goddesses ancient men created in wish to rule the nature, but some ns and behavior which later on shaped the human history. God and goddesses of Greeks are preferable to be mentioned that show the role of creativity on human lives on their activity and hence on their history. Zeus; king of heaven and earth, Hira; queen of deities and wife of Zeus, Apollo; sun god, at hena; goddesses of wisdom, Ero; god of love, Hades; king of underground, Hephaestus god of fire and metal working,...etc like Greek and Egyptian the roman has also different god and goddesses that were showing their in trust in force that govern different parts of nature. When the quest and the instruments that were the product of human creativity developed to an extent that they could recognize the forces that govern nature then they erased the depiction of nature in their god and goddesses. Today the men by following the forces of nature they invent such tools that men can just dream in their whole history. This shows the role human creativity that their creativity at last made possible men to purify their beliefs from contaminations and hence illuminate their souls; we again compare the role of creativity and the activity in the famous early civilization that how these two factors influence each other in making history. The most significant event in ancient history is the inventions of writing by Samarians and the beginning of recording history in Mesopotamia. this is the turning point in the human history as it separate the pre historic time from the ancient history .of the all achievements of this region their inventions of writing, their inventions of letters, their recording history and or code of ethics or first laws are very important. All these are connected to the creativity. Their building cities are also product of creativity, while their defeating the Jews later on is of their activity. Their making governments and developing civilizations is product of both creativity and activity. There are more activities than creativity but the result of creativity is looking more significant than activity. The Egyptian, Greek and Persian civilization are nearly contemporary but our world are most influenced by Greeks rather than Egyptians and Persians though Egypt and Persia were stronger than Greeks. The Greeks especially the Athenians emphasized on creativity while Egyptians adpersons emphasized on the activity. The creativity of Egyptians and Persians in the construction and developing cultures are today their recognitions. Their activities of expending their territory and their densities made the history of the area but the achievements of their history is largely in their cultural influential of; later conquerors. For example Iranian art and culture enriched the Muslim Arabs that conquered Iran, so here Persian remained alive through the achievements in philosophy, art, and literature, constructions, and system of governments were adopted by Romans ad also greatly adopted by the modern pen. Chinese re remained isolated from the world due to their geographical locations, so their activities and creativity were mostly internal with limited external influences. today the world are more interested in their creative achievements of their history, though their recent political activities of up throwing the kingdom by nationalist, replacing the nationalist by communist and turning of communism in to capitalism under the leadership of creativity all are influencing in making new history of the modern world. Today world are amazed more from unique Chinese culture, art, style of constructions, choosing governments officials, medicines, method of curing, philosophy, etc. from historic China. The inventions of paper by Chinese revolutionized the world as it made easy and cheap the saving as well expansion of knowledge. It also helps to make knowledge in approach of common man. The invention of block printing by Chinese was the first step in the way of modern electronic printing. The teaching of Confucius changed the life style of Chinese. Chinese had a particular attitude, behavior with each other which become part of their psyche due to the teachings of Confucius. Though Mongols conquered the China and ruled the China but because of the weaknesses in the field of creativity they lost their identity in the Chinese society, so he Chinese not defeated as her creative achievement had that much capacity the conqueror dissolved in it. Today the Mongolia is considered as a small and an uncountable country though once Mongolians ruled Asia, Africa and Europe. If the Mongols had great creative achievements along with their active achievement today their affects still exist in the conquered areas. Muslims were totally vanished from the Spain but their creative achievements still evidence their existence. Muslims don’t rule the India any more but their creative achievements are the sign of cultural India. Taj Mahal represent as a symbol of beauty and love that is character Muslim’s architecture left in India. In India develops two nation theories because both nations had strong creative achievements so there was naturally resistance for survival of both nations. If any one of these nations did not had creative achievements would dissolved in another one. Muslims though were in minority kept alive their recognition due to rich creative achievements they had. Alexander the great made immortal his activities by leaving the creative memorials and construction wherever he conquered. Roman history is full of both creative and active achievements. They organized their Army, expended their territories, and devised a government system. Their construction are the richest of all which the Italy, especially city of Rome unique among worlds architectural styles. The Greek and Roman games and festivals became the nucleuses of modern world games and festivals. Today people know some third world countries because of their games especially South American countries and some African countries. Game is a kind of activity that has earned a historic frame for individuals as well as for nations. How architectural designs are important in history of nation can be realized by the Sydney Opera House which became the recognition of Sydney and Sydney the recognition of Australia. Medieval ages were not the silent era. There were wars between kings and lords. There were expansion of territories but again remember that age as dark ages. Why, because there was no creativity activity. The nations remained to live same for centuries. Though, the construction of this period like churches and castles are part of their creative works that become part of history. One thing here must be added that we talk about the creativity and activity but no favoring and moralizing depends upon the ones view or perceptions. Similarly creative work does not necessarily totally boost up the lives but it could result in mass destruction like modern weapons.
Islam appeared as a religion but revolutionaries amazingly a nation that had no creative or active back ground. Islam illuminates the black hole of civilization and turned Arabs of deserts to leaders of creative and active world. The most amazing part of Islam is how it filled the totally dried minds? How it convinced the wilds that had no taste of civilization? Islam begins its expansion as people revolution. It changes all aspects of individuals, families, tribes and societies by its unique government that was based on peoples struggle, "Jihad”. It is why Islam has soon spread all around. The other civilizations or kingdoms like Persia, Rome, and Egypt were all based on the high classes of the societies so they could not stand against Islam. Here is the difference between the history made by the peoples or mass activity or by activity of class of society. But these mass movements ended by establishing of dynasties in the Islamic countries. The deviation From Islamic teaching resulted in to restriction of creativities and activities to higher classes. Under the dynasties people’s creativities as well as activities became limited. When dynasties declined by divisions, the creativity and activity also declined. Even history saw a moment that some began to think that Islam is an old ideology and it can’t work in modern society or it is impractical in modern ages. A region that illuminate the blind minds in such a way that they become the leaders of the world, it certainly if illuminate a modern men they will change the history. It was proved by Imam Khomeini’s Islamic revolution, throw of the throne of the Iranian King by peoples struggle neither only be the part of society such a Mullahs nor by ruling classes. Muslim contribution in medicine, chemistry, mathematics, astronomy and construction are creative achievements. Their translation and interpretation of knowledge of older civilization made history as they preserved parts of history that were in danger. The activities that Muslims did in conquering the early civilization shaped later history, as it caused Crusade wars mobilized the Europeans. The crusades caused in cracking the dark ages as people mobilized due to involvements in wars. This caused in weakening of wars tight control of the feudal system. People that were involved in wars by observing outside world changed their minds. It caused the development of new classes such as scholars and traders beside the clergy men. It was the crusades that caused the renaissance in Europe. The movements of crusades have four obvious outcomes;
1] The new areas introduced new products which resulted in trade.
2] The hold of Muslims on trade routes caused search for new routes.
3] It introduces new classes in to the feudal system.
4] New ideas come from new land which causes revival of Greeks ideas.
These all as a whole caused renaissance, which changed the old feudal system and prepared Europe to enter in to the modern age. The vital aspect of crusade was the people’s movement which by end of crusade turned for reforms. Because the renaissance was the continuation of people movement so it provides that much capacity that Europe can enter in the modern ages. The invention of printing press strengthens the people movement. The speed of the advancement was also because of people involvement, because at a single time the different aspects as blossomed as people of different interests were involved in their field. As the renaissance caused, people movement so it changed the religion by introducing Protestantism. It changed art and literature. It was the period of such great names as Michelangelo, Leonardo Da Vinci and Shakespeare. Galileo and Copernicus shifted the idea of the centrality of the earth to the centrality of the sun. It is important because it was also the change from centrality of blind beliefs to the centrality of the logic and observation. The discovery of Columbus was in reality the discovery of futures leading power. The discovery of new lands expended the capacity of the modern man to absorb the rapid advances of the modern ages. Now we came to the modern ages which have the wounds of two world wars, colonization, revolutions, freedom movements, clash between two economic system, globalization...?The industrial revolution, The telecommunication, revolution. The atomic ages and the age of space. The modern age is the most significant era of the human history as it has the more instants than any era in human history. Though the most prominent role-played by Europeans, Americans, Russians in both creative and active achievements but the other nations also played active role in the freedom movements, revolution and struggle for modernization. The two World Wars brought great turns in the modern history as they strengthen the sense of nationalism, caused in establishments of united nations, Wars attraction of investments in the science and research which caused great technological advances, Wars started the race for high technology among nations, wars weakened the control of power of times on the colonies and made the favorable environment for freedom movements. The two world wars shown to the men a new face of the impacts in history made that global activity. The globalization is the active creative of the historic processes but still has a great deficiency that it is still could not get the people movements but the high classes are pulling people in to the globalization process. The Bolshevik revolution in Russia and the communist revolution in China started the cold war. The significant fruits of the cold war are the space age as well as intercontinental missiles with nuclear war heads, but the most significant fruit is the restriction of the capitalism as it introduced the labor and consumer theory which cause in increase in middle class though it were not fruitful all around world equally and still the majority of the population of the world is living in awkward condition. In the Muslim part of the world the most historic event was the Islamic revolution of Iran, which influenced the Islamic minds and many Muslim movements begin that will shape the future history of the world.
Till now we have discussed the creative an achievements of civilization that were lead of higher classes or by the peoples movements that made history but there were activities and creativities that made history and for which individuals were responsible. Here we describe some of the many active and creative people that made history Menes the first pharaoh of the ancient Egypt that united the upper and the Lower Egypt and hence put the milestone of a great civilization and their creative achievements influenced later civilizations. Hamurabi wrote the first laws. It was the foundation of civics in the human history. A creative act put the milestone for the civilized socializations. Today nations are known from their laws as it is the laws that determine the direction of the whole nation. It is much important that modern men devised international laws and there are human rights movements throughout the world that it makes it possible that a government y making inhumane laws don’t squeeze nation or a part of nation. Though, it is not still successful as the so called civilized powerful still believed in might is right. Buddha, that turned the ways of life of a great part of Asia and his teachings are history maker as it influenced the cultures of two great civilizations along with many smaller nation of the area. Cultures and customs of an area play a great role in history as they made the habits and behavior and in turn they influence the human activities and creativities. Cyrus the great which put the milestone of a great civilization the Persian civilization which replaced earlier civilization and not only made the later history of the area but also influenced the Greeks and Egyptians by attacking on them. Cyrus is great not only because built a Persian civilization but also because he introduce a small nation like Persian a great nation that only challenges Babylonians, Greeks and Egyptians but played a vital role throughout later history till now. The Persian culture enriched greatly Islamic Culture and today their Islamic resolution revived the Islamic movement. It is not the strengths of population but it is the force creativity and activity of Persians that they have enriched the history of the area. Confucius [551-479BC] is a sign of the strengthened effectiveness of creativity. His creative teaching worked like a strong nucleus force in great Chinese society. The force of his teaching glued Chinese society more than two thousand year. His teaching influenced both rules and Chinese people so in later history of China his teachings were always present. Socrates, Plato and Aristotle are three names that human history is more indebted to them as they provided the human creativity a direction and confidence by introducing and strengthening the knowledge. Today we put every scientific achievement in to the mathematical expression because we want to clean them from every kind of confusion that lead to the mistakes. Again we want to advance in to the vastness of unknown again the mathematics keeps us organize as lands of unknown covered by the thick forest of confusions. Mathematics is logical expression which develops out of creative behavior that these three great men show to the subjects of their study. Logical behavior works as a heart in the field of knowledge. Any where any time the logic was neglected the knowledge declined and confusion and superstition started growing. once Greek civilization looted it again could not recovered because they failed to recover the logical environment that produce logicians but whenever, anywhere on earth any nation without any distinction adopted this behavior they rose a great nation on the surface of the earth. Arabs after Islam, European nations after renaissances Russian, Chinese and Iranians after their revolution are example. Alexander the great because of his creative activity were always in mind as great men. His ideas which flourished under the influence of Greeks photosphere so his activities put a great influence in the human history as he influenced the behavior
.Alexandria was the expression of such idea that al human became a single nation. Today modern men are following him as they’re struggling for globalization. His conquering was in real sense preaching of the Greek civilization but it was limited to only to Alexander. his respect to the civilization is the behavior that still human kind could not fully realize or in other words men still could not evolved that much they respect the human civilization and they are still imprisoned by their prejudices. Men still could not get that much confidence that respect all human civilization as they all are unable to make recognition for themselves, so they have stick to prejudices as a defender of their recognition. There is general behavior of opposing and destroying the other civilization that remains themselves remains alive. It shows a clear feeling of weaknesses to enrich their own civilization that lead men. Shi Huangdi the first emperor of China united the China and this unity of Chinese remains throughout later history which made Chinese a nation. It is this long going unity that with the largest population and diversity of landscapes, Chinese still has strong sense of nation. The unification of China is more important that the building of Great Wall of China by Shi huangdi as the Great Wall of China cannot defend China against the Mongols but the unity of China saved their identity and recognition as Mongols dissolved in the vastness of this unity. The Great Wall of China also could not stop the Britain and the Japanese but the sense of Chinese nationality always saved their recognition against any invasion. The activities of Shi-huangdi though were cruel as he burnt the books, executed the scholars and forced the people to work on the Great Wall of China that thousands of them died but again his unification of China put great effects on later history of China. Theodosius a Roman emperor by making Christianity the official religion of Rome greatly shaped the later history of the world as it helped in the spreading Christianity all over of the Europe and the Rome become the center of the Christianity. Still Rome is the center of Christianity in] the world. In history of Medieval ages, in crusade war and during renaissance in Rome played a vital role. The important factor that that the Christianity played was that it made possible that Europeans interact with each other closely instead the diversity of nation as well as intrude in the colonized nations especially in African and American Continents. It played an important role as the slaves occupied nations mentally and spiritually become part of the invaders and their master and similarly the rival nation become come together in peace though there were wars throughout history among these rival nations and there were horrifying wars like first and second world wars. So Christianity as a religion binds much diversity in to unity and hence the Theodosius are responsible for these changes. This act of Theodosius made clear that how political decisions shaped the later on lives and history of mankind. It also make clear the importance of political activity that the majority of the people were neglecting and still are neglecting. IT is the active people who write not only the fate of their contemporary world but also influence the fate of later on generation by their decisions. Muhammad [PBUH] a perfect man that revolutionized every sphere of life. He was the symbol of both creativity and activity. He is the sole man in history 0f man kind that what he said did him. He started alone preaching Islam at the age of forty and in next twenty five years when he left this world HE has established an Islamic government. It is really a miracle that Muhammad [PBUH] could totally change the minds that were only filled with the prejudices, superstition and fear of famine. It was a revolution because the Islamic movement was the movement of the people. It is why the powers of the time collapsed all one by one by instead of all kind of superiority and deep roots in old civilization. The main thing in Muhammad’s Islamic movement is that it seeks the global Islamic governments and Islam Islam’s promise to the men is the global Islamic government based of justice. This main future of Muhammad’s revolution was always kept Muslims active and creative and will shape the future history of the world with great extent because it is the part of the beliefs of the Muslims so they can’t deviate from it. Islam in this sense is a great force of making history as it never appreciate the inactivity. Islam emphasis on learning, thinking, observation and making distinction between the scholars and no scholars is another force of making history as earlier Islamic era had evidenced but later on the deviation from Islam by rulers caused to decline the affects of Islam. As Islamic movement is the people movements so through out the history there were direct and indirect affects of deviation by the rulers as there unjust authorities were always in danger by people’s movement. Pop Urban 11 a man whose speech against Muslims started crusades wars that changed later history as crusades were people’s movement so the people become active which disturb the existing set up of power under feudalism. The most important part of people’s movement is that people realize the real power that they had and the weaknesses of authorities that rule on them by the psychic tape of fear. The second thing in peoples movement that people realize that the rulers source of power is the people source of organization and the people are not organize so when the people move under an organization they change the set up powers as the crusades lead to the renaissance. Genghis Khan the legendary man of activity who proved that a small and unknown nation by force of activity can conquer any number of people and any vastness and diversity of land. It is not technology, civilization, wealth and majority but it is the strength of activity that make bow down heads of inactive people. Great Wall of China, civilization of China and great number of Chinese is nothing if they are inactive. The diversity of land and people, the wealth and civilization, the great number with great rulers are nothing if they are inactive. A small number of inactive people come down from cold and dry land of Mongolia can bow down Asia, Africa and Europe proved by the Genghis Khan. Though Genghis Khan was a cruel man and destroyed many small tribes with limited resources and caused to decline Muslims strength but he thought men how activity make history. History only knows activity and creativity not race and era. Inactivity is a crime in the view of history. Mongols taught an other lesson also to men that activity without creativity is not permanent as if the activity rules on the bodies the creativity rules on mind so the Mongols which come down to conquer the civilized nation later on conquered by same nation as they dissolved in creative attraction of conquered nations so creativity and activity are complementary agents of the history. John Gutenberg is the inventor of press. The Gutenberg is a historic man as his invention liberated the knowledge from the paws of high classes and the mass publication of books made it frequent and cheap that common people can also afford readings. The availability of books descent the creativity and activity in to the common men. The speed growth in every sphere of life that today we observe in the blessing of involvement of common people in creativity and activity though not satisfactory still promisingly. The frequency of books caused the broadness of mind and the respect and understanding of different civilization and hence it has worked greatly to prepare field for global civilization of man. The availability of books and introduction of printing media in to lives also changed the concept of ruling people. Now the rulers struggle hard to control on the thinking of people s the actions are the results of thoughts so the propaganda of governmental agendas and censorship directly and indirectly is an important part of modern government. The theoretical bases of political parties also showing the importance of thinking of common people. Copernicus replaced sun by the earth in the old concept of astronomy. This replacement of heavenly in the concept of men do not changed any thing to the heavenly bodies but changed men as it turned the direction of men from the blind beliefs to the logic .this replacement helped men in better understanding of natural phenomena that later helped men to pace in the space age. Creativity of men is not only the metal flight of men but these metal flights can become real when men began to understand them. Russo a philosopher that used his creativity for the men’s liberty and equality and his and his writings proved how creative thinking influences the direction of history. Today human being is confused as from one side they are pretending that they respect the men’s liberty and equality and from other side their appetite for unequal progress and authority are forcing them to exploit the weak and inactive men. They are reasoning to make legal their exploitation in the name of teaching civilization to uncivilized nations. Russo had realized this fact when men indented to pace in speed progress that progress of men will result in declination of their ethics. Today we observe split personalities that act really like advanced barbarians. Modern men have no fear of any thing but of themselves as they are considering humanity a burden and obstacle on the way of it so called advancement. Men started giving that much importance to their products that they themselves become secondary. The gap between evolution of man and it products have split men mentally. Today there is a need of philosophers like Russo that they again use their creativity for men’s equality and liberty but this time for liberty of men from their superior and advanced product and equality of men for their superior products. Modern men inferiority to their products is the great loss of humanity in the history of men. it is the affect of Russo and other philosopher that at least modern men try to justify their acts that at least they remain in the circle of human. Every pace of the senses of machines or their product as greatly has been replaced. Jam Watt is the inventor of the steam engine. How engine shaped the history, just considered the absence of the engines in first and Second World War with engines there were no airplanes, tanks, vehicles, so that the army movements were slow the war would continue for longer time but there were fewer killings. There were no Pearl Harbor attack and there were no atomic bombs attacked on the Japan. The war in the oceans was as limited as there were no submarines and would take longer time to reach continent like America. The development from steam engine to jet engines develops the behavior and the expectation of men also. Men are expecting cheap frequent easily available, useable, safe and more stronger source of energy that would give him more speed and frequent chances of un inhabited planet that will revolutionize in the real since the human lives and human history. The most significant impact of the inventions are that they influence both creativity and activity of men so the inventions are not just related to the creativity of men nut it is the driving agent of both creativity and activity like trade and industry. Thomas Jefferson though acted as a state man but his role in the building of new nation is more theoretical. His ideas about liberty, religion tolerance, education etc established the bases of American constitution and institution and American states took away that lead them to a great way of the world power. Though for all this Jefferson is not solely responsible but his role as a thinker and state men is a decisive factor in the way this nation choose. For understanding the role of guidance of leaderships just compares the nations which got their freedom after the world war two and the revolutionary China. Those nations are really fortune who comes under the guidance of creative people in the critical moments of their history. Adam smith who the first time correctly analyzed the economic factors and hence made economics a solid way of thinking. Today economic analysis became the base of all the fields of life. People become that much conscious about economics that they considered most about the economic result of any action that they want to take and move their investments according to the political situation. Adam Smith creative analysis of economics greatly influence the history as the attitudes of the people changed. The aspect that Adam smith changed was his stress on labor as source of wealth and capital not the lands as the labor determines the rate of production. Extensive labor cause in to increase 2:56 AM 5/28/2007 of wealth. Karl Marx later on also stressed on labor as source of accumulation of the capital. The advances in the machines greatly replaced the human labor. Machines have no feelings and do not become tire and also have no involvement and emotional to any political or religious beliefs, so they work regularly without any objection. The improvement in machines increases the production and quality of the product, so the machines labor is source of capital in this era. This led us to the conclusion that in modern ages the creative labor in machines and designs of products are the source of capital. The shifting of physical labor to the creative mental labor is another change in economics which influenced every field of life as the importance of the creative attitude and environment increased. The nations that struggled hard to restructure their social and political setup as such that they achieve improve and sustain their creative environment and flourish their creative attitude will get superiority in the capital world which is the herb of all other sectors and historical fact that history get more influence from creative world as today we evidence. Napoleon, the sign of activity. The role Napoleon is though not that much small than we neglect him as his early successes were greatly erased by his later defeats by his main role in the history is the changing the minds. He is symbol of the courage had height of individual achievements. if we say he is the idol of inspiration for the courageous youth would not be false. The envious youth symbolize him as he becomes a emperor from second lieutenant. Though, he was not the sole man to go that much high rank. Here is our area people symbolize late General and governor Mohammad Musa Khan Hazara as he become general of great country that now become two important countries of south Asia Pakistan and Bangladesh. HE fought a successful war in 1965 war between India and Pakistan. He recruited as constable but become general. Napoleons are a hero for many youths but now days a concept of the heroes has degraded greatly by the filmic heroes. The people have mixed between the famous and celebrities and the heroes. Eros are not necessarily the famous people but hero is one who does a great task that look impossible sometimes heartlessly and sometimes by scarifying their lives. The main feature of a hero is that he seeks struggle and fight for the truth. But filmic heroes are just mere symbol of barbarian violence, sexuality and fashion. They just advertise the style that has mainly commercial purpose. This concept of the heroes affected the psyches youth. Youths commonly don’t seek the truth and the tasks in the way of truth but they seek visibility and lusty affections of the opposite sex either by the mad styles or by copying barbarian violence of the filmic heroes. John Dalton is an important in creative history of men that by presenting a technique of scientific thinking opened the door for innovating research in chemistry and physics that all natural sciences put their bases on them and filled the in treasure of men as much compounds and instrument that men could call themselves explorer of the nature. Dolton’s concept of the atoms as bases of elements and compound really started a new era in creative achievements of men that greatly influence the active achievements of men. Without the compounds that introduce by later research under light of this concept many events that are now part of our history would not be in these manners so we can say Dalton indirectly shaped the later on history of men. Dalton concept of compounds on the atomic bases shows the power of the method of thinking and techniques for thinking. The Dalton is also to symbolize for the affect of struggle or way of struggle of an individual of the whole mans lives and later on history. So we need today most individually and in organization to give special attention on the developing of techniques for minds and along with search for findings of the practical significance that develop the technological advances which are the base of economic growth as hub of the activity of men. Because may open a door that revolutionize the technology. Darwin like Dalton proposed a technique of the organic life that causes sudden evolution of understandings, explanation and research in organic life. Men being part of the organic life start looking at every aspect of life from lenses of evolution. Men’s politics, economics, distribution of population, social life and cultures and history all are looked and interpreted from view of the evolutions. These all certainly affect the relationship and behavior in the interactions. Earth history got great ventures tits principals and method of research from the evolution theory specially in aging the rock strata of the basis of fossils. These all are no doubt had affected on the materialistic growth of men as growth and development of history modern life of men concretely based on the raw materials and sources of energy. And evolution theory greatly helped in exploring them as by aging and understanding of the strata and their relationship with each other it become possible to map those sights that were out of the sights in the depths of earth or covered under alluvial or plantations, etc and hence helped in exploitation of raw material and petroleum and economical costs. The theory of relativity in reality was like a mutation in human understanding. The survival of the fittest have affect of positive and negative aspects. Negative in the sense the powerful erase the weak considering it a natural process as unfits cant survive and their vanishing is a natural process. Positive in this sense that the people struggle to become fit that could survive in the presence of the criminal minds and hearts filled with prejudices. Louis Pasteur is like Dalton and Darwin was a creative man that introduced the concept of the germs and the vaccination and prevention methods like pasteurization. May be that much not killed by arms that much human lived saved by the vaccination after the discovery of vaccination. This is the effect of the creativity that a single man can do for men that men can’t do for him. It is not known and may be no one will know that the Pasteur by the discovering the vaccination method have saved the lives of how much of the great men that after him played important part in the history or will play. From this point of view the Pasteur had shown that the force of the creativity has long lasted effects in the human history. Graham bell, put the base of what today we call the global village by inventing the telephone and made possible the telecommunications, fast and cheap. Today people may think and feel hopefully about the global civilization though there are political and economical barriers. I am very hopeful that the speed, fast and mass communications that are going all over the globe will speed up the understanding of the people of the world that scattered all over the globe with their own distinctions. May be more of the prejudices are due to limitedness and lack of the communication hence ignorance. But the global civilization requires the creative intellects of high capacity open mindedness that are filled with humanity. Today’s emptiness of intellects and the abstract fashion of creative men is discouraging point that men still failed to develop a global civilization though the technological advancements have provided much to them. It looks that the technology are much advanced from the philosophical, cultural and spiritual achievements of the men. I think it is the most suitable time intellectual again stands for the moral rearmament as extent morality can be only thread that we bind the beads of the diversity of the human cultures and achievements .Though the economic globalization is more practical but there would be always unpredicted situations and relationships in the economic medium. So the economy must work as a tool under the rule of morality. I know the men still is not that much evolved the agree or acts to follow such a way as the powerful knows no law were always the principal of the men but just can hope is just for the civilized men not the so called civilized men. Civilization is the surplus product of the materialistic needs but in the artificial needs and the mirage of the markets there is no surplus by the name of humanity or morality. Upon all degradation again the telecommunication is an effective tool in understanding an coming close, which may lead us toward a pseudo global civilization which will be based on abstraction. Graham Bell is a really put base of the new eras in the human history by his creative achievements. If we have to understand what means speed due to creative mass production the Thomas Edison is the best example. He is the miraculous inventor as his inventions exceeds a thousand and this number of inventions and their impacts reveal another face of the creativity and the activity. The inventions based on the earlier inventions or in other words the creative additions speed up the rate of everything. And the speed is the most prominent feature of the impacts of Edison’s inventions. Today we all experience the speed in every field of life and the rate of speed is increasing. This is the same as in case of Edison. Today there is no great discovery, inventions and any other eye catching progress in science but there are flood of the new, complex, better and cheap products in the market. The technology is running faster than access and the needs of the common men. This speed though has activated men in every corner of the world but they changed badly the senses of men. If I say the equation of the senses of the modern men had distributed and it has distributed men’s psych to an irreversible extent it would not be false, as the men are more familiar with external hardware and software then their internal hardware and software. Men have perceived or they habitually believed in more reality of the external world then internal world and then it is the most illogical behavior of the modern men. Edison to me is the pioneer of the mass production. Edison’s stronger influence on the history is his behavior in a following field. His nonstop and team work experiments influence others to follow him in the same pattern. His successes in inventions also enlightened the importance of the technique for thinking. Experimentation in real sense is a technique of the mind to evaluate the logic. Sigmund Freud, men whose creative work were man centered. The re attention of men though in terms of psychology is a big achievement and impact of the fried in the human history. This achievement is more important than the correctness or the falsehood of the Freud’s view of the psychology. Psychology still could not prove itself as a real so how it can make modern men believe that their internal world are so much real than external world. There is a clear lack of the mechanism. The mechanism lack as men has intelligence. As the mechanism developed men go beyond the mechanism due to their intelligence. It looks creativity are too much evolve than the creative work that creative work will never get it. Extent morality can be only thread that we bind the beads of the diversity of the human cultures and achievements .Though the economic globalization is more practical but there would be always unpredicted situations and relationships in the economic medium. So the economy must work as a tool under the rule of morality. I know the men still is not that much evolved the agree or acts to follow such a way as the powerful knows no law were always the principal of the men but just can hope is just for the civilized men not the so called civilized men. Civilization is the surplus product of the materialistic needs but in the artificial needs and the mirage of the markets there is no surplus by the name of humanity or morality. Upon all degradation again the telecommunication is is an effective tool in understanding a coming close, which may lead us toward a pseudo global civilization which will be based on abstraction. Graham Bell is a really put base of the new eras in the human history by his creative achievements. If we have to understand what means speed due to creative mass production the Thomas Edison is the best example. He is the miraculous inventor as his inventions exceeds a thousand and this number of inventions and their impacts reveal another face of the creativity and the activity. The inventions based on the earlier inventions or in other words the creative additions speed up the rate of everything. And the speed is the most prominent feature of the impacts of Edison’s inventions. Today we all experience the speed in every field of life and the rate of speed is increasing. This is the same as in case of Edison. Today there is no great discovery, inventions and any other eye catching progress in science but there are flood of the new, complex, better and cheap products in the market. The technology running faster than access and the need of the common men. This speed though has activated men in every corner of the world but they changed badly the senses of men. If i say the equation of the senses of the modern men had distributed and it has distributed men’s psych to an irreversible extent it would not be false, as the men are more familiar with external hardware and software then their internal hardware and software. Men have perceived or they habitually believed in more reality of the external world then internal world and then it is the most illogical behavior of the modern men. Edison to me is the pioneer of the mass production. Edison’s stronger influence on the history is his behavior in a following field. His non stop and team work experiments influence others to follow him in the same pattern. His successes in inventions also enlightened the importance of the technique for thinking. Experimentation in real sense is a technique of the mind to evaluate the logic. Sigmund Freud, men whose creative work were man centered. The re attention of men though in terms of psychology is a big achievement and impact of the fried in the human history. This achievement is more important than the correctness or the falsehood of the Sigmund Freud’s view of the psychology. Psychology still could not prove itself as a real so how it can make modern men believe that their internal world are so much real than external world. There is a clear lack of the mechanism. The mechanism lack as men has intelligence. As the mechanism developed men go beyond the mechanism due to their intelligence. It looks creativity are too much evolve than the creative work that creative work will never get it. The conscious study of men may devise a mechanism to suite the common men but it would never be unrevealed the creative men as they are except of the some explanation for their resultant works. Wrights brother’s creative work opened to men doors of not only new world inside world but also some new experiences of views and routs and also new means of power. Men for the thousands years experienced the land and the water but not the air. There were the world of the air that men lived under but not in. the inventions of airplanes brought men even beyond the world of the air into the world of the space. To me the Wright brothers are proved that the men are not evolved as Darwin perceived of the animals due the adaptation of the environment or the struggle for the survival. Men change the creativity and activity of the men goes beyond the struggle for their survival into their curiosity. The flight through the influenced the history of the men as it change the perception of the men about the life and living by new experiences. Albert Einstein’s most fascinating influence on men is the introduction of the theoretical science as real science. Men’s imagination is an endless laboratory with the most sophisticated equipments and most evolved systems. A creative men can use a mobile and in an expensive laboratory to his own courage and passion in the creativity. Majority of the population is poor to the existence and too poor in access to the knowledge though there are improvements in the literacy rate. This majority can’t imagine participating in sharing to the knowledge of the men generally and to the science especially. Albert Einstein’s most influencing role is his message that every men the chance to share by his n mind. Laboratory in real sense is hardware facilitation and every men has gifted by the hardware as brain. The real matter is software. it is why every student of science is not a scientist and every student of art is not artist. The main thing is creativity that by guidance finds its own inspiration. The relativity, time, space, matter and energy were original world that Einstein experienced in his imaginations. Others thought try to experience the same through his formulas but they can as much as their imagination allows them. As Einstein is the symbol of great mind and also he made the symbolic use of mind in the solving of the great mysteries mostly depended in his creative imagination so it is better beside this great mind discuss some short points about creativity as creativity is the great driving agent of the history. The natural phenomena and everything that is part of being or in other words have a existence is called facts. Every men observe, thing, learn, experience, feel,etc but all the men don’t have all this perception, approach, understanding and force of analyzing and expressing, Why? Even in same conditions and at same situations men have different thesis about same thing. Does taking this line will help us in understanding the different between great men and common men? OR Does analyzing the great men’s life give us certain set of principals based on which we design our ways. Or does their situation help us in revealing those process which them great men that we masked such an environment that would help us in producing great and unique men? My answer is no. We can’t design such a system that ensure producing great and unique men because every system produce controlled men can’t be great men as great men are unique and developed out of common way or controlled way. But it does not mean we became hopeless and do not try to develop our system or let our system go randomly or abstractly. there are four factors that our system designs always remain incompetent to the great men.1)The great amen are always thing or aim more advance than their present system and advancements and this make themunique.2)the design of a system requires times and energy to settle but the changes are to speed that our system could compete with them.3)the common men is too slow in adaptation of new system that encourage the continuous growth and development of the system in increasing speed.4)the restriction make stiff and tough but stop or slow down innovations and freedom encourage laziness and abstractness. It is very difficult to maintain the balance between freedom and blossom innovation and restrict ness that make prevent spoiling of the seeds. But upon all these the most promising point is inspiration. Inspiration is the strongest tools in producing the great men as inspiration do not touch only a single factors or point. But it affects all points from emotion of the work. Mentality, or intellectually that is the seed of the innovations and spirit that is the source of hope and triumphs. Psychologists believe that it is the emotion that makes a personality. Some other believes that the greatness is born out of the poverty as sense of poverty always scratches the minds to think. Some other believe that the kind of a education that one make a set up for their minds that make them introspect into nature of things uniquely,...etc and many other reasoning. But there is a common thing an all great men of all the fields throughout of the history that is passion. All great are passionate to their fields or cause. So it is the sole point that can lead us an understanding at least the way if not the method of greatness passions have roots in the emotions, intellectually, knowledge, involvements, spiritually equally. Understanding of the source of the passion depends on the awareness of the processes that goes inside. The awareness can get though the practice and teachings. The most prominent factors in seeding as well as growing passion, is inspiration. If the creativity and intellectually were rooted in the emotions than there are people which had lost their lives in the extremities of the emotions. Every man suffers from a kind of an emotional disturbance at any stage of life. if there is a reasoning that the emotions in the childhood is the factor that seed the personalities in the live ahead then there were nations that are thousands of year old and there poor and wealthy families among but they again failed in producing great men. If the poverty is the machine of the producing great men than the majority of the men had suffered and are suffering from the poverty. As the source of all knowledge is the human mind so it is better discussing about the set up of minds as part of a technique worth as a working method . Roger Sperry research says that though the both hemispheres look alike and their primary motor and sensory areas also function in the same way. But the both hemispheres function quiet differently. In the left hemispheres there are logical, mathematical and function quite differently. In the left hemisphere there are logical, mathematical and linguistic abilities and the right hemispheres lack all these but there are functions of the imagination, spatial perceptions, artistic and emotional abilities. As every man have the brain and their brain do not lack right or let hemispheres so everyone must have both logical or scientific abilities as well as artist abilities. Certainly every normal man has but some are extra ordinary, why? The answer is simple that an artist uses more his right cerebral hemisphere them his right and a scientist use more the left hemisphere. The reason to use a point more than the other is ultimately due to the interest and the interest due to the inspiration. There is point to remember and that is the inspiration is not just from men but source of inspiration may be anything. It may be an idea, an event, an object an individual, a system, an environment or set up. Giving importance to the creative and active people in a society and exposing them as heroes and respected part of society may help in the burning minds and inspire people. Inspiration is the driving force of the thinking which is the key to tie creativity and activity because it is thought on bases of which we decide. The above short discussion is an approach which can help us to design our environments according to our situations if we wish our offspring become great men that shape the future history of the men based on the justice. Lenin was a real active man as he made possible the ideology of the Marx into the work in a large area and large population and made Russia, Soviet Union, a super power of his time. Lenin proved that the activity based on the innovations have a force to not only demolish the old structure but also make workable even a rigid ideology like Marxism. Though the Marxism ruined to the resident force of the history but it was an innovative ideology in its time that turned the modern history of the men. the most significant result that Marxism taught the world in its experimental destiny is that system based on logic and innovations have no match to the systems based on the religion or beliefs in durability, as beliefs are self sustained system that can survive in every situation except the deviations in the beliefs and the laws themselves as evidenced from religious history. This also mark it clear the innovations in the main structure in the main system is not durable but the prohibition of the innovation make the system jam as the life is evolving and history is the record of the changes. Innovations under the guidance true teachings of the religion are the neutral behavior. Innovations under deviations and similarly the deviations under the innovations are the extremism that may fail in the experiments as logic and nature based on which we put our ideas are always not supporting each other. Lenin was an active man though his selections are not justifiable. Alexander Fleming’s discovery of the penicillin was the result of the innovative observation that changed the living standard of the men by effecting on both health and economy and also new ways of understanding and observing the living world. The discovery of the Fleming made the conscious of being alert and prepared for the chances. This idea in itself is innovating that there are chances but it is if not prepared to cash them. When there is preparation for seeking the chances became visible this kind of a behavior has a real affect on the history as it is a creative attitude that is the driving agent of the history. Adolph Hitler was an active man that though had major opponents but proved the force of the activity even it is in single men. Active men can active a nation that can change the fortune of the earth. Though, it is true that there is not any stability in the friendship or in the enmity of the nations. But that an active men that guide a nation that make recognition for a nation as particular nature based on the activation.
Mao se dong, was in real sense responsible for the awakening the lion that had slept for the thousands of the years. The great potential and power that China had didn’t expose her to the external world. It was the creative activity of Mao that unearthed this potential. He did not follow the exact Marxism but mold it according to the needs and the nature of his people and country. The most significant behavior of the Mao was his revolutionary nature. He had realized the importance of the activity so he made the revolution inside the revolution. The more changes in China after Mao are in the real sense of the following of the same attitude though not the same lines. It is the activity by the force of the revolution that this great potential of the energy or as termed the slept lion could remain alive. This is not true only for the China. The creative activity can suite every nation. Without of the activation also a nation can survive physically but not in history. Mao’s role in the modern history of the men is still continuous and the men in future will see more effects on the history of the modern men. Imam Khomeini is a sole man in the modern history that truly understood the nature of the man and makes a neutral walk in the extremities of the modern world. He based his revolution on the beliefs that a modern man has neglected as a un real. the equation between the internal and external world is a neutral behavior that modern men had lost Imam Khomeini’s contribution is not only the changing of the lives of the Iranian masses, but his real contribution is the opening of a new way for the guidance of modern man. His revolution is the awakening of the modern men from the deep of the unconsciousness of the materialistic world as a real perception. His revolution is call for a neutral behavior, the modern unconsciousness is looking unbreakable but the more evolution will ultimately lead men to the super consciousness. I have presented the creativity and activity as the driving agents of the history and also stressed that these driving agents have driven the history through masses also civilizations and also through individuals that were active, creative or active creative. the thing that is to say at last is the creativity and activity are no doubt are driving agents of the history but history of men are not always triumphant because of the activity and activity but there were senses of the revolution to the judgments of the human values also. Hence the history says to us that the activity and creativity require under the guidance of the human values. Though the active and creative men never like the limits but the human beings are not the limiting agents and they are the shaping agents. They concentrate the energy of the men. What limit the evaluation of the men is the prohibition of the creativity and activity not the guidance of the creativity and activity.
Professional democracy (part: 1)
Calculated discipline's democracy
Written By: Khudadad Azara
As calculated discipline itself is mechanism of knowledge so it distinguishes between the knowledge and opinion. Calculated discipline classifies the opinion based on measure of knowledge. As democracy is based on opinion of majority under the rule of majority so there is a large scope of different designs and methods of doing so. However calculated discipline objects on this basic of present democracy.
An opinion of a naïve man is surely doesn’t equal to the opinion of a professional on that field. Though even the opinion of a professional is not equal to knowledge but it is more factual and close to knowledge than non-professionals. It is most simple logic that is accepted and practiced and presently we are practicing. The most common works that are expected everyone can do are now specialized and there are professionals that handle them. In this respect it looks very strange that how we became ready and are ready to give our fates and the fates of our next generations in hands of people who are not trained and they are representing and working under influence of naïve opinions. It is really fool a practice. There are certain reasons that we are accepting these practices.
a-These practices are established facts that were suited the old ages. Though they are not suiting the present status of men but they are not resisted because men always resist change. Change not only requires a lot of energy but it also requires experiments and hence men are not ready to go through a process of uncertainty to change their present situations. Men prefer compromise with present systems and expect their coming generation to sacrifice for change.
b- Fear is another most common factor in resisting the change and compromising with present systems. Men brought up in systems consider those systems as only ways of life and even as a routine and common part of life. They consider these systems strong enough and beyond their capabilities to change them. Challenging these systems would simply means challenging your existence. Hence men prefer the compromise as only option for adaptation.
C- Familiarity and ease or in other terms adaptations is another main reason. Men have adapted these systems with all means. Hence they feel easy working and living with existing systems. A change will certainly require a lot of changes to adapt the new ones and hence they require a lot of hardships and difficulties and a long time to become familiar with. This is totally different from what men want more easy and free means of life.
Beside the resistance of men for change they struggle hard for new technologies that bring easiness, luxury and increase their productivities. These technologies change the life styles as well as the thoughts and behaviors of men. Introduction of technologies are also require changes because they do not only bring easiness but also produce and introduce new section of people. These new people shake the existing structures of societies and they have their own influences. Just imagine the introduction of information technology. A totally new industry developed and a new section of information technologies and users emerged that forced the societies to redefine each and every aspects of life. From commerce, education, documentations, communication, to travel and governance every aspects of life is redefined.
As technologies bring silent but essential changes they also open ways and means for introduction of completely new systems also. Calculating the effects and influences of the information technology, its growth and expansions along with empowerment of people at new levels make us rethink at existing political systems and analyze whether the present system is able to absorb such changes without changing itself?
Certainly! Currently most popular political system is democracy that is still looking its way to enter in many societies but it too late for it because the people have new tools in their hands which translate their opinions and their visions for their deciding their fates.
Calculated discipline is proposing professional democracy on the basis of certain facts:-
a-The opinion of people are not equal to knowledge but despite they are rooted in personal interests, prejudices and preferences. Hence these opinions are serving more divisions and injustices under cover of laws, equity and civilization. An assembly or parliament which represent the different interest groups only work to secure the interests of their own supporters and hence widen the gapes and divisions by every means that they can find in laws either they supports others growth or suppressing them. Here in this assemblies and parliaments there is less influence of knowledge and logic but despite there is more influence of majority’s support. In other words there is rule of might than rule of knowledge.
b- Professionals can discuss and propose more knowledgeable and factual solutions and make laws n support the growth in that field. Here there are no distinctions of area, race, language, religions, color and other divisions. Here logic and knowledge rule despite of might. Hence by having every profession their own assembly will empower the development and growth rather certain interest groups.
c- There is no tyranny of majority or divisions by name of majority and minority.
d- It will really shrink the world to global village which we are talking and dreaming of but not making it reality due to our mistrusts and divisions. Today we have the names of global village and global civilizations but not in practice.
e- It will help to solve the threats and productions of weapons of mass destructions as well as acts against of humanity. It will also help to minimize the discriminations as well as threats of world wars.
I know that this system will require time in educating people to evolve them to this level. But having visions, changing our education systems and upgrading our technologies at the same time as we try to absorb them in every field of our life will make this system a reality of our futuristic political system. This will minimize the divisions and help men reconcile and put the foundation of real global civilization.
Mechanism of Professional Democracy:-
Professional democracy is based on individual level. Every individual is required is required to have a complete information of himself/herself. How this is possible? This is solved by the technology that we have already available. Even such dreams already exist to some extent and have been worked also a little bit. The Massachusetts Institute of technology has launched OLPC project. OLPC stands for One Laptop per Child. It is tried to change the design and make it cheap enough that every child in developing countries have a laptop. The main aim is to enhance the means of education in developing countries. Either this program succeeds or not is not much important but the vision that this program has provided to world is more important.
Mobile phone spread to world as virus and mobile phone companies are competing with each other in designs, prices, qualities and functions. Most of the persons have their own mobile phones. It is a revolution that has changed the life styles and the way people communicated and worked. Even some of the cultural boundaries are broken silently without much notice from societies. In the perspective of growing information technology it is possible the OLPC get changed into OLPP. OLPP stands for One Laptop per Person. It will be possible if the designs, sizes, functions, prices, ways of works, teachings and communications changed to a great extent.
Introduction of such technologies will also change the ways schools enroll, asses the students. There will be no more separate notebooks and books but instead the oceans of the information in their laptops. Because the students will be assessed by their personal contributions to knowledge. Their ideas and works will be not limited to classrooms but will be open to the world. Each student’s essential data will be in their laptops and could be accessed to form each machine. The schools are the sources of information. This is the foundation of both professional democracy and information based economics. This is not the only source of data that new civilizations are going to be based on but more important than this will be the data that educational institutions and other organizations that individuals are affiliated and are part of them will provide about behaviors and performances of individuals.
The citizens, students and members of organizations should be responsible for their behaviors to other fellow men and women. The human rights could be monitored by this information system and hence one component of social justice could be maintained. Machine readable cards are another available technology that could be used in the same manner. Only those individuals should have the right to vote and could participate in professional democracies whose social behaviors are cleared. Those who commit a crime against fellow men should be punished according to law and shouldn’t be given the right to vote and participate in professional assembly in any means until he or she shouldn’t warranty of good behavior with fellow men and women.
Every profession should have their own assembly at local level, city level, provincial level, national level and international level. Every member of a profession can submit his/her opinion to his/her professional assembly but only those persons can be a candidate for professional assembly’s representative who passes the related competitive exam. Conducting exam for governmental positions are old practices rooted in china and is a useful tool for good governance. Competitive exam not only ensure best mind to the leadership and decision making positions but also eliminate the chances of divisions on any basis. Discriminations should be wiped out in all levels.
The discussions and problems that will address in these assemblies are knowledge based. Every individual is can understand and propose more knowledgeable solutions in his/her profession but is naïve in other profession. Certainly the teachers know better educational problems and if all teachers are there in an assembly in which teaching is discussed then the discussions will be more competitive and fact based rather based on interests of certain groups. There will be more serious discussions and solutions if the best minds are selected as representatives.
When I was in Hardin Park elementary school as part of Fulbright teachers exchange program, the science teacher of 8th graders Mr. Alan Felker asked his students, “Do our best minds rule on USA?” All the students answered loudly “No Sir!”. And he was giving examples of the practices that were part of the USA’ slaws and were common practice in USA but against the Science. For example, even poor and backward countries use metric system for measurements but not USA. It really impressed me. I have read and observed about the injustices practiced in present democratic systems but never compared them on the basis of Science though myself was a science teacher and were struggling hard to influence my students to use science as a machine of knowledge and a logic to redefine and redesigns our present systems and make our world more natural.
When I say natural I don’t mean the same as most of the people think about nature. People mostly think of nature as processes in which there is no human activity. On contrary, I consider men as part of nature and I consider the natural as processes in which nature act in its own and if men are involved in it then men should have the understanding of laws of nature and have acted according to laws of nature. Most of the problems with human activities are in lack of their knowledge and understanding in natural laws and hence they always mess up due to their ignorance.
Professional democracy (part: 2)
The introduction to professional democracy raised a lot of questions about professional democracy which to answer, here is some further explanations which are certainly not the last as the new ideas and suggestions are coming to develop it more into a workable alternatives to present systems. Several points that caused confusion are discussed here.
1- How is it possible that we could include representatives of all trades and professions? Or create assemblies for every profession? Will it not cause a biased system as in cities more professional people live while in villages there are certain professions that people have adopted? Similarly the population of villages are more than cities but their professional level is lower than cities so, how we could call it democracy by neglecting the opinions and representations of a large part of society?
2- The democracy is not only a best way for training best leaderships and giving them chance to manage society in best means in terms of social welfare but it is also a mean to represent voices of people especially provide people a cultural representations.
3- There are bureaucrats and technocrats which run the departments in governments. How would professional assemblies coordinate with these bureaucrats and technocrats to run government smoothly and efficiently?
Before answering to these questions it is necessary to acknowledge that there is an economic system by name of information based economic system which is designed to stabilize the professional democracy and ensure the delivering of the social welfare that people expect of government. In information based economic system it is ensured that natural resources become a public property and hence prevented of developing a feudal system as well as making economical collaborations and competitions of knowledge, skill and labor more extensive. Beside information based economic system ensures an accepted level of standards for all. Keeping these points in mind will help in understanding the workability and purpose of professional democracy.
Once all people are provided equal opportunities and empowered them the democracy takes a real meaning. The educationally empowered people will have more aware opinions that will vote to their real representations. They are aware of their rights as well as the importance of political process in which it will be decided that who will decide their future. The economically empowered people will have time and resources to participate in political process and make political process more competitive and hence real leadership come to surface.
As it is the responsibility of state to keep an accepted level of standards for all hence the differences in villages, towns, cities and large cities become minimized. It is impossible to finish the differences between cities and villages as the difference of opportunities regarding geographical positions, populations and centers of specific trades and trading are natural. Hence it becomes a naïve question that professional democracy is a biased system. Besides professional democracy are not only professional representations but also cultural representations of people so if there are diversity and more populations in villages then there will be more representations of people who will speak and stand for people.
The diversity of professions and trades are not new. Though the number of trades and professions are increasing due to progress in knowledge, technologies and services but still they are linked to the few large divisions of knowledge and departments. Society is diverse and increasing diversity of society makes it difficult to manage society and govern but governments have few departments that deal related issues to them. The classification of departments includes all professions and trades. Certainly the bureaucrats and technocrats are specialized professionals which run the governments. Now it is the methods and nature of representatives of people which will determine the form of democracy.
Keeping this issues in mind there are several models of professional democracy is possible which professional themselves can evolve according to their situations. Society evolves and hence the political system and systems of governance need to evolve to answer the problems. Here we will discuss a model of professional democracy.
Model No. 1: Transitional professional democracy:
Model No: 1 is a transitional model to shift present form of democracy into a real professional democracy. In present democracies the political parties are essence of democracy. Though political parties are the source of divisions and making eligible exploitations but still they are platforms through which people speak their voices and struggle for recognitions of their culture and identities. Hence in transitional professional democracy the basic need is restructuring of political parties. In transitional professional democracy only those political parties are legal and allowed to participate in political process which could fulfill the professional necessities of governance.
Structure of political parties:
1- The political parties are required to have all departments in their organizations which are present in governments which are competing for.
2- These departments in political parties are responsible to attract professionals in related fields and to provide services to people.
3- Beside they train the political workers to make organizational levels of political parties capable of delivering their promises.
4- The responsibility of these departments of political parties is to monitor the functions of government departments and provide professional suggestions as well as professional critic.
5- Similarly they are also responsible for providing professional reports to public about the functions of government departments and hence make accountable the government departments.
6- Every department have to collaborate with private organizations and companies and also make private partnerships to prove their capability as well as making solid their researches, suggestions, proposals and organizational levels.
7- These departments of political parties have to publish their annual reports of their projects and services they have provided for people.
8- These departments have to generate funds, raise their funds as well as compete for public money for competitive projects advertised by government.
Making specialized departments in political parties leading by professional are made mandatory by law. The criteria made clear by laws are evaluated by courts to make eligible political parties participate in election. Hence the society makes the ways to decision post competitive enough to screen the cream of society for political representations as well leading society. As only professional people are elected and the ministries or government departments come under leadership of public representatives are professionals in related fields as well as standing for voices of people so they can lead the government departments more professionally. Beside there are professionals in departments of political parties along with media and other professional organizations suggesting and criticizing or monitoring the works and leaderships of these public representatives more effective.
Beside courts, political parties, Medias, professional and public organizations which monitor the leaderships of public representatives, there is a screening organizations above the city assembly, provincial assembly and national assembly which is composed of half representations of senior lawyers and professionals who look to any bill passed by assemblies to make suggestions for improving them as well making sure that they are not violating public justice as well as founding laws. These screening organizations are known as senates in current democratic systems. These senior representatives come from retired judges, bureaucrats, technocrats and cultural or religious authorities depending on structures and traditions of societies.
To make process of elections, transparent the information based of economic system is used. In information based economic system all bio data of individuals are digitalized hence the age limits and number of voters is recorded. The people have to digitally vote and the courts have to monitor the process of elections and counting and also declaring official announcements.
Information based Economic system
Calculated Discipline’s Economic System
An economic problem is rooted in scarcity of products in needs and the increasing numbers of wants and needs struggling for those products. The economic solutions are mostly focused on distribution of those resources in a manner that not only satisfy the needs but also make ensure the growth of people as well as increase the products and quality in needs. There are several economic systems practiced by men. It is the priorities of men that make different approaches towards means of productions, distributions and consumptions that create different economic systems.
We take the approach of free market economy as an example. Here the priority is freedom of the industrialists and those providing services. They should be free in deciding what they produce, how much they produce, when they produce, what will be the prices of their commodities and services and who are their potential consumers and so on. The logic underlying this system is competition. The industrialists will compete with each other and hence they will produce more cheaply with better qualities. They compete with each other for limited customers. Hence the rate of growth will increase. As competition is growth mechanism of nature so this system is quiet natural and the only system compared to any other systems that could devise. On other hand on consumer’s side, there is a range of choices in products and prices. Here it is the test of wisdom of consumer that how he handles his money to get best products and services in available resources and he how he saves himself from not trapping in non-ending puzzles of debt. Here you are free only if you are economically free but once you trapped in debt then you are an economic slave controlled by loan traders.
At first glance it seems that there are competitions among living organism in a free state without any check and balance. In other words nature is a free competition without any rules. But in fact this is not the reality. The nature has an established ecosystem which defines the rules of game. The ecosystem is composed of local ecosystems and each local ecosystem is unique in itself. The basic principle is same but it is the calculated amount of energy flowing in each local ecosystem that makes it unique and different from others. How well managed and organized is an ecosystem. Certainly these ecosystems are the economic system of nature as they are based on the flow of energy in its members. The competition is there but not in Free State. Everything is calculated. If the balance gets out the whole ecosystem is changed.
The same is true for human societies as the human societies are also organic and are part of the ecosystem. Every individual and human group is unique in themselves but the basic rule is equal and that beyond the control of men. It is in hand of nature. Whoever does not care of the calculated discipline is pay the price anyhow. It is OK that men have plenty and variety of food available and have created different devices for easy and controlled cooking but if he/she forgets the rule and eat beyond the calculated discipline then he/she has to pay the price in term of sickness. Even the water that people think of as most harmless component of food follows the same rule. Both its deficiency and excess will cause sickness.
Having an open competition for limited numbers of consumers and providing more cheap and quality products seem quiet natural and according to human nature. But the reality is opposite. Though men love freedom and growth but men are too specialized and organized that common conception of freedom is beyond his imaginations and practice in real life. Men have evolved far from natural ecosystems. Hence providing free hand of freedom is beyond his imaginations and practice in real life. Men have evolved far from natural ecosystems. Hence by providing free hand to a group of people by name of competition we will sacrifice others for the competition of these groups. Freedom must be there but it must be based on understanding and knowing the balance exist in society. And as we mentioned each and every individual and groups of individuals are unique in themselves.
It is interesting to note that due to advances in technologies and expansion of these technologies by free market approaches have changed the lives of people. The government systems changed, people get their voices heard and got new opportunities. There are a lot that people can share with each other and struggle for their identity and dignity. The people around the world compare and struggle to equalize their life standards to a global level. This is a phenomenon of globalization on the ground in the lives of common people. People are concerned to save the track that they are pacing but crisis that come out the globalization is worrying people. People do not want to lose their achievements to new monsters.
Current global rise in prices of fuel and food products all over the world affected the lives of people especially the people who newly enjoyed a better life. It is a monster of modern world that people fear will snatch all they have achieved and are dreaming to achieve. Common people have interesting interpretations worth describing. The people compare the policies of global agents with the agents of drug traders. The agents of drug traders provide free doses, free meals and chances of free enjoyments to youths. Once they become addicted they stop supplying and the addicted people are forced to earn in any way to purchase the drugs. Their relations are no more of sellers and customers but of slaves and masters. The technique they use to cash out the labor of men is also interesting. It is just like tricks that we were using in primary school to tease each other. In primary school we were getting the one rupee as pocket money that we could buy two pieces of cake by it. I remember the first time that I fooled by my classmates. In recess time I bought two cakes and was about to start eating it, that a group of my classmates were sitting on stairs called me.
“Hello Khudadad! Please have a share in our cakes” All of them presented their cakes to me.
“No! Thanks please have a share in my cakes” I presented my cake to them. One of them took both my cakes and there were loud laughter afterward. Then I understood that they had fooled me.
Actually it is a custom in our society that one asks other people to have share in your food. Mostly people thanks and present their own food to others. I thought they are presenting to me due to the custom and I thanked them and in return presented them my cakes but they had planned to use this tradition to fool me. Though it was a game of school children but the agents of globalization are using the same trick seriously to make their monopoly in market and lives of people. They are presenting people with some interesting offers and once people used them they become addicted to products and services and unconsciously those products and services become part of necessities of life.
One another interesting example that I observed was in ?. We were walking through market to have a dinner there. There were shops but we were not deciding to where we should have dinner. As we were on our way looking at shops that we reach a small Chinese shop. A woman was standing on track and was offering a piece of chicken to every passing one. Suddenly we all stopped there and get our dinner there. A lot of people followed us. I amazed of the trick that the shopkeeper was using. Other shops had fewer customers than this shop. I also amazed of human psyche. Most of us are not rational in expanding money on shopping but just follow the attractions. Even the most practical and rational men become the victims of the market attractions. Simply most of the time people are defenseless in free markets and hence there is a need of system that should be based on calculated discipline that saves people from miseries that they earn for themselves due to their fooleries. The common people need protections in free market to save societies from massive social crises. If we let free market work freely without protection for people then people become unable to benefit from advances in technologies, choices of free market and freedom that get through these two processes and they become just economic slaves that are unable to use available commodities.
One other aspect of free market that needs to be corrected is its every move effects the lives of common people. Common people are totally defenseless and have to absorb all shocks by giant moves of markets. It is a process of relative progressive growth in free market. It means that as one grows bigger its growth gets more and more speed and enjoys more and more incentives with less and lesser responsibilities. In this process the lesser is your growth it gets more slower and you will have less and lesser incentives and more and more responsibilities. Here the lives of people with fewer opportunities turn into miseries. Here I just quote the common approach of people in free market. The people says if you haven’t the capital to start your own business and you are compel to sell your labor then don’t expect progress and just be ready to rely more and more hard works to maintain your life by growing needs and higher prices. But on contrary if you have capital to have your own business you will grow more speedily as the needs grow because it create more business opportunities.
Increasing necessities and increasing prices make people concern about the value theories. What is the value of their labor could become comparable with their needs and inflation. There are large factors that affect the values of the commodities. A few factors like, labor value, technological value, knowledge value, fashion value, aesthetical value, sacred value, exchange value, demand value, value due to scarcity, fame value, historical value and etc are famous ones that we are commonly familiar with. There is a need to make the labor value comparable to other values to make progress of people sustainable.
Contrary to free market is communal ownerships or communal productions and distribution system or government managed production and distribution of commodities.
The concept of ownership in information based economic system
The concept of ownership is a dividing line between capitalism and socialism. The capitalists are convinced of private ownership based on their principle of free market and socialists convinced of public ownership based on their principle of equal distribution of wealth. Certainly it is the principles which guide a society how to distribute the wealth. The concept of ownership in the information based economy is calculated discipline. Calculated discipline says that one owns what one has produced, has labored on or served for. Based on the principles of the calculated discipline, the information based economy system divides the sources of the wealth into two categories:
1- Natural source of wealth: All natural products like land, rivers, lakes, mountains, plains, oceans, mineral resources, etc, in which men have no contribution to produce them.
2- The Man-made products: All products and services in which the Knowledge, labor, investment and man-made resources are involved like crops, cattle, electricity, fuel, buildings, vehicles, computers, etc .
Natural sources of wealth:
As there is no labor and constructive contribution of men involved in producing the naturally produced sources of wealth like land, rivers, mountains etc so they are the public property and there is no place of private ownership in them. It is a real issue that touches the real lives of everyone. Those who have land or homes encourage the concept of private ownerships and there are billions of people who support the concept of private ownership because it is in their benefit. Similarly there are billions of homeless and landless people who support the public ownership of land so they get land for cultivations, grazing or becoming able to have their own homes. The ownership of land is equally important in villages and cities. There are certain facts which should be kept in mind while deciding the concept of ownership of natural resources:
1- The area of land is fixed. It can’t be increased though the area of productive land can be increased by developing the barren lands like marshy lands, deserts or extending the lands into oceans etc in which the struggles, knowledge and investments of men are involved.
2- The populations of men are increasing exponentially especially due to better conditions of life.
3- Some parts of earth are overcrowded yet more and more people are migrating towards these areas. The highly productive lands, large cities, harbors, mining and fishing areas, etc are already overcrowded. The productive lands are becoming smaller and smaller due to division of lands due to hereditary laws. Smaller divisions of productive lands are becoming no more productive because they are producing crops which fulfilling the needs of families working on them. They can’t supply the needs of people in cities. Similarly the congested cities have less and less land areas to provide new homes for growing population as well as immigrants that migrate from villages, towns and smaller cities. The migrations can’t be stopped because jobs and better living conditions and opportunities are making people determined to migrate to these areas. Presently the solution for this problem is increasing the stories of buildings. The buildings are growing in heights.
4- No labor, knowledge and investments of men are involved in the production of lands and other natural resources.
5- The lands were the source of war and enmities among individuals, tribes, communities, groups of people and nations.
6- The private ownership of lands have caused that many land areas remain uncultivated and unproductive or not used in more efficient ways because either the owners are incapable of doing so or not willing to work on them.
The above mentioned facts led us to a stable and logical solution. By this solution the distribution of wealth and resources can be made more justifiable or based on justice by including the principles and methods based on calculated discipline. It is an inevitable fact that every human society has economic classes so it is logical and practical to divide the economic classes of the societies based on their earning levels and their needs to an accepted level of life standard in a time and place. In information based economy the distribution of wealth is based on the earning levels and the needs of people to an accepted level of life standard in a time and place.
Based on the basic principle of information based economy system the private ownership of lands is prohibited. Lands are the public property. As lands are one the main sources of wealth so the use of there are certain points which information based economic system stress on.
1- As lands are public property so there is no concept of inheritance of land and the laws of inheritance are inapplicable to lands.
2- The cultivated lands are distributed to farmers as not only they could meet the needs of farmers to an accepted life standard in time and place but also supply the national needs. The farmers own all products of lands they work on but the land itself.
3- The unproductive lands are open for competition to development into productive lands to certain limit of time in which the reimbursement of investments and profits are assured.
4- Homes are private property but not lands so in areas needed the government could increase the height of buildings in order to provide homes to all by keeping assured the safety and accepted standards of life.
5- While solving the problems of home, it is necessary that the governments and individuals do respect the religions and traditions of the people by not mixing rival religions and traditional groups so the public unrest are result or the religious and cultural practices of minorities are affected.
Having the above approach we can solve both the problems we are facing now in distribution of wealth as well as we are prepared to meet the futuristic problems. If we continue the private ownerships of the lands and other natural resources the increasing populations and migrations will led us to wide gulf of wealth distributions and development of an unproductive and parasitic group in society who just by having large private ownership influence the fates of productive people.
Man-made sources of wealth:
Certainly what one produces have the right to own it, so the all what one produce is part of his/her private ownerships, especially homes, machines, crops, cattle, intellectual products, etc. The knowledge and technologies are changing the methods and nature of productions. Technologies, machines and knowledge made men able to produce so massively that is even beyond the needs of the nations and masses. But still the economic classes are fact of every society. There is no single society where the economic classes do not exists hence to minimize the gapes among classes and to benefit all parts of society of the developments in knowledge, technologies and national growths it is necessary the taxation on private properties must be based on the earning levels and needs of people to an accepted standards of life in time and place. The important points on which the information based economy system stress are as followings:
1- All the processes of distribution of wealth must be transparent.
2- The distribution of wealth must be based on justice. Here justice means the calculated discipline which ensures the providing all inhabitants an accepted standard of life in a time and place.
3- Provide a workable mechanism for principles of calculated discipline.
4- The governments should be aware of earnings, expending and needs of everyone so she could maintain the transparency and accepted life standard of everyone.
To ensure these points the information based economy system requires all the earnings and expenditures and using of the facilities should be digitalized and part of personal identification of everyone. All the public facilities like shelter, power, communication, food, clothing, and education, health, seeking justice, transportations and other public facilities should be based on earning levels. The earning levels who can’t afford public facilities the government is responsible to pay on their behalf in order to maintain the accepted life standards.
Still those who are creating wealth for society and increasing the life standards and contributing to wealth and development of nations their productivity should not be affected. The government is responsible to facilitate such powers in order to develop the creativity and the ambitions of growth and creativity. The classes in society are a natural process and it can’t vanish but it can be used for the growth and benefits of all classes. The public institutions are to serve both the lower earnings levels and higher earnings levels in order to achieve two objectives:
1- Minimize the gapes of earning levels by maintaining the standards of lives.
2- To increase the rate of growth of growing forces.
Can Capitalism survive without interventions?
The economic downturn continues. Bailout planes are announced but still there is no cure. The hardliner capitalists who always speak of capability of market to heal and organize itself without intervention of government are silent on the subject. The bailout plans are crossing the national borders and the international powers are putting hands together to put more money into the IMF to use the global economic depression for deeper interventions in the poor countries of the world. Does really capitalism run on interventions? Before we go to answer the question, I put another question and that is, “Does capitalism needs interventions because it needs external sources of wealth and support to grow?
Intervention of slavery
To answer this question we have to use the logic of history. Feudalism was near to collapse due renaissance and massive trades through sea and oceans similarly expansions into new lands and other nations became possible due to bullets and steam engines. The new lands were the asking for wide cultivations and promising great profits. The new lands and the unequal trades with other nations were the sources of the first capitals and introductions of the capitalist system to replace the feudalism.
Hence the capitalism started with interventions of wealth coming from new lands and looting of the colonies. As there was not industrial revolution yet so the new lands required labor to be cultivated. There was not enough capital to hire labor for cultivations so the first capitalist started to abducting the black African and making them slaves for forced works on the fields. The massive abductions of the Black African were another intervention into newly established capitalist system.
Intervention of Industrialization:
The capital earned from new lands and slavery produced enough surpluses to be invested for producing goods. The investment of the surpluses led to industrial revolution. New factories also required labors so the poor people are hired by industrialists for massive productions. As the only purpose of these industries were profit and the work environment were new for workers, managers and owners so they led to revolt. It was this era and the experiences of this era that helped Carl Marx to develop his revolutionary ideas. The ideas of the Marx were first revolt against the capitalism.
We can understand that why the Marxism developed in the second phase of the interventionism. Because in first phases of the interventionism the slaves were unable to interact with their masters cultures and understand the political and economical cultures of their masters. On the other hand the white industrial laborers were the members of the same society and were familiar with the economical and political cultures of their society so the revolt began the socialism and capitalism were put forwarded as alternative systems to capitalism.
Intervention of assembly line production
The revolt of the labors and competitions among the industries were making the capitalism towards failure as depressions were common after a decade or two. The inventions of the assembly line production method which lower the costs of the productions and made it to produce massively and so to present cheap labors. New industries and mass productions along the falling prices of the commodities were led to an economic growth and sudden increase of the middle class. The increasing number of the middle class was the reason for stability of the society. The assembly line was a technological intervention into capitalism.
The great depression of the 1930’s were temporarily healed by war economy but the real solution to capitalism come by another technological interventions and that was automations of the assembly line productions. The assembly line automations and followed automations were the real technological interventions and it was strengthen by computerizations.
The technological interventions proved that technological interventions are an essential part of the capitalism to survive. As the automations and computerizations of the industries were asking for more skilled labors and so the wages went high. New industries became costly as they required heavy investments. To keep paces of the capitalism intact and to save the capitalism from collapsing another intervention introduced into systems and it was called privatization.
Intervention of Privatization
Privatization was a step that capitalist governments introduced to inject the public properties, infrastructures, industries and businesses to capital market. Privatization was a real injection of public money into private businesses. It was good for rich countries like UK but it was a disastrous experience in poor countries like Pakistan where the feudalism has strong hold in politics and economics of the country. In rich countries like UK, the public money remained in country and attracted more businesses or simply leads to an economic boom but in poor countries like Pakistan the public money and businesses flew out of country.
Though privatization speeds up the rates of growth of the capital markets but as it is a trend of the capital market that it could only could be saved out of the economics collapse by regular interventions or injections after particular intervals so the markets required new interventions. This time the businesses required the cheap and skillful labors. China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia and like Asian countries had cheap and skillful labors so businesses shifted their business units in these areas. It resulted in shift of the technologies and labor markets and created an economical boom in India, China, and Malaysia and like countries.
Intervention of bailouts
The surpluses that have been accumulated during each intervention in market encourage new businesses like lending on profits by banks in areas like housing, transport, businesses, education, etc. Certainly these are the areas that people needs most and on urgent basis. The high level of demands in these areas caused the rapid growth of the lending businesses. As banks use the trust of the people rather than their actual reserves so the lending exceeds beyond the capacity of these banks. Soon the banks were not able to fulfill their responsibilities so the banks started to collapse.
This was the situation was different. It was not only markets but the houses, jobs, businesses, educations and health of the people that were at risk. The popular appraisal was not far if the governments were not quick to act. Here more problems were also making it serious. There were no competitive systems competing with capitalism to blame them for global economic crisis. There was only one system ruling the world unchallenging so all the economic down turns and collapses were due to defects in capitalist systems. Beside the rebellions forces like Russia, Iran, Venezuela and Cuba were using energy sectors to challenge the Imperialist West, so it was natural to look into sudden global recession as planned counter attacks on such forces. The countries that most suffered were the gulf Arabian countries whose economics were totally dependent on energy exports and direct foreign investments. The cities like Dubai which had become a global financial hub of the area were questioned about its models as genuine.
The government soon stepped in, intervened directly into capital markets by crushing their principles as non interventionism or free markets. The first phases of the bailouts failed so the next phases of heavy public money bailout planes are working in markets and we have to wait to see the outcomes.
The present interventions by the governments into markets had made one point very clear and that is free market is only workable if the government is always have reserve to come to its safety after each intervals there are no ending intervals.
Bailout plan is a socialist injection into capitalist growth crisis
By Khuda dad azara
Anything that is organic grows. Anything that grows has developmental stages. At the transition stage from one developmental stage to another, a growth crisis happens. The growth crisis has been noted in humans, in Sciences, in politics and in economics. The Psychological crisis in individuals at the end of each developmental stage is an established mechanism and well known in Psychology. The growth crisis have been happened in Sciences are also well known. The crisis of classical physics and its solution by quantum physics and yet again the quantum physics itself is in crisis, the two famous crises in mathematics, the crisis of irrational numbers in Greek era and the crisis of set theory in early twentieth century (Between Zermelo and Cantonian theories) are a few examples of the growth crisis in Science. Growth crisis in Politics is that much evident that crisis is included in essence of politics. Politics starts from conflicts which lead to consensus and then into division of power and authority. The Aristotle had devised a cycle of systems of governments in context of continuous crisis in politics. Just like any other organic body that has developmental growth and resultant crises; the economy is also an organic body that grows and hence has growth crises.
Growth crisis in economics:
We are fortunate that we are in stage of history where we have experienced the clashes, solutions and results of the rival economic systems and now we are in position both in terms of knowledge, technology and experience to have a new economic system to resolve this growth crisis. Let’s talk a few words about those clashes and their solutions in our modern history. Just a few decades earlier there were two rivals’ poles in world economy. The socialist pole led by socialist Soviet Union and China dominating Eurasia, Far East and Eastern Europe and the capitalist pole led by USA and Western European Countries.
We start from socialism as there is common conception among people that socialism has failed. To support this assumption the examples of collapse of USSR and Wall of Berlin are given. The liberation of Eastern European countries are also given as an example. Despite of announcing the failures of an economic system and forgetting it, it is wiser to know the reasons of historical failures to learn from them to become save of repeating the same mistakes.
Comparison of the USSR socialism and the Chinese socialism make these mistakes evident. Bothe USSR and Chinese socialism did fine at the beginning but as they grew to their limitations, now they reach to the point of growth crisis. What were these growth crises? As the Russian and Chinese Socialism expanded and there were surplus of the products out of the socialist production powers. There were need of markets for these products and at the same time there were need of capital to sustain the rate of growth and expansion of these producing powers. Both markets and especially free market for these products as well as the required capital to sustain these expansion and growth were part of the Capitalist world. Two different outcomes resulted from the two different strategies to solve these problems. The result is well known the whole world and is one the greatest lessons of history:
1- The USSR denied opening a planned introduction of their products to the open markets as well as investments from markets to sustain its growth and hence the result was the famous collapse of the USSR economy and the breaking of its states. The Russian federation quitted the socialism and adopted a capitalist economy.
2- On contrary the Communist China, when reached to the pick its growth and there were surplus products from socialist production power, it is opened a planned and step wise doors to markets of world. The cheap Chinese product dominated the expensive free market. The profits from these products provided China a surplus to speed up the expansion and growth of its economy and the world have seen the GREAT EXPANSION OF CHINESE ECONOMY. Before leaving the discussion from China, it is necessary to record my warning on Chinese expansion. This expansion has also a growth crisis and at that time the solution will be the Socialist injection into Capitalist China. This growth crisis can be resolved if China keep a Socialist aspect beside the capitalist strategy of expansion that we will discuss later.
Contrary to the growth crisis of Socialist economy there is the growth crisis of capitalism. This growth crisis is happening right now while I am writing this article. The USA the largest and wealthiest capitalist country in world has announced a bailout plan. This bailout plan is worth 770 Billion US dollars. The total reserve of Pakistan with 170 million people was 12 billion US dollars. It means 770 Billion dollars is equal to the reserves of Pakistan for 64 years at current rate. This amount of money which is public money or the money earned out of taxes on US citizens will go to a few banks and financiers. The Western European countries like Britain, Germany and France who represent the free market and capitalism in world has also announced the bailout plans. The developing countries like India has also announced bailout plane. The countries like Pakistan who are struggling against the hardly effected economic and security crisis are taking help from IMF for their bailout planes. THIS IS A REAL GROWTH CRISIS OF THE CAPITALIST ECONOMY.
The bailout plan is the opening of door of capitalism to the socialism. It is exactly what the Socialist China did. It will work to resolve the growth crisis of the capitalism if the bailout plane were in real soul were socialist. It means it was put into the lives of the common people who are unable to grow with expanding growth of the market. Still we have to wait to the decision of history for this experimentation of current bailout plan. But it would be wiser if it were really socialized as the solution of growth crisis of the capitalism is in stepwise planned socialism. Until now we have mentioned two opposite phenomena and these two phenomena teach us two smart lessons:
1- To resolve the growth crisis of the socialist economy there is need of a planned injection of capitalist economy.
2- To resolve the growth crisis of the capitalist economy there is need of a planned injection of socialist economy.
A quick and generalized view on the history of human kind make it evident that the surplus from an economic systems led to the growth in arts, sciences, technologies, political systems, religions, theoretical systems and cultures and above all civilizations. The ancient Egyptian, Greek, Persian, Roman, Chinese and Hindu civilizations were the result of this surplus. The amount of surplus is the determiner of the growth and expansion of non-productive but yet valuable growths like arts, religions and cultures etc. As the finance is result of the surplus, so we can map the effect of surplus in the following formula:
Finances…… > Instruct the economy ……….. > Economy……….. > Instructs the social welfare…………… >
Social welfare ……….. > Instruct the world………… > that who you are? And what is your position in world? And how should be the relations with you?
How to produce this surplus and how to distribute this surplus is the distinguishing line or indicator of an economic system. It is the red line between capitalist and socialist economic system. Because this times the capitalist economy is in crisis so we limit our discussion to capitalist crisis. The capitalist market has composed of two distinct parts:
1- Productive part: Composed of producing industries and service industries. This part is creating surplus.
2- Non productive part: Composed of a large part of the stock markets and banking sectors, though banking and some parts of stock markets are important part of services industry. This non producing part of the capitalist world is gambling on the surplus that productive part of the capitalist economy is creating.
Two big source of power in an capitalist society is money and vote. As money is produced by the surplus, finance or in other words by investments so for earning money one still needs, money. The other source of power is vote. Again for taking vote one needs to invest money. As election is an open competition so it is expensive as there are competitions between financiers who have large amounts of surplus. So again the vote is for rich. Poor works hard to produce surplus and votes to provide authority to rich. Rich invest to earn more and get rich and finance to take vote and have the authority to again to have larger shares in public money or people’s tax.
Still the situation is not so bad. There are some socialist promises in capitalist world. The minimum wages for workers, job security, job work environments, introduction of technology as labor force and social security system is a few socialist reforms in capitalist economy that have saved it from total collapse that we have evidenced in USSR or as promised by Carl Marx.
This socialist reform in the capitalist economy has to grow to make it a better system for the global growth and resolving growth crises.
As I have indicated in last paragraph of the discussion was the socialist reforms of the capitalist system. Still despite of the patch works of socialist and capitalist’s tranquilizers it is better to have an alternate system that include the positive side of the both systems and exclude the negative sides of both systems. Let’s first mention the positive sides of the both systems and work them together.
1- The capitalist system has the capacity to produce the surplus and finance the growth. It has also the capacity to provide markets for the consumptions of surplus products. So the capitalist economy is the engine of the producing surplus.
2- The socialist system has the capacity to include those parts of society into mainstream of growth that are unable to grow with the current rate of growth.
Now we are able to adopt both these positive side into a common system. I call this system an information based economy system. Here we have reformed both democracy and socialist and capitalist system. The laws are made and reformed or amended by professional assemblies rather that peoples assemblies. Still people are governing and decide their futures but not rich people by the name of representatives of people in capitalism and party leaders in socialism. Here every profession has their own assemblies as it is the era of professionalism and one professional can decide, judge and solve the problems related to his/her profession rather than politicians. Similarly here the voters are not blind or persuaded by heavy finances and advertisements but despite they vote on judgment of their knowledge in their professions. The surplus that is created out of the strategies of these professionals will be divided into two parts. Again one part go back to these professional assemblies to grow the production of surplus and the other part of the surplus is put in the social information system. What is social information system? As the technology has made able us to have the financial and social status of every individual so it is necessary in information economic system that record of income and expenditure and the social status of every individuals must be available to decision makers and implementers. Form here the distribution of other part of surplus in determined. It is determined that no one must be discriminated or excluded from the mainstream growth.
The Contributions and inclusion of every individual of the society is possible by current technological level and is the solution of the growth crisis to any economic system.
A rough sketch of Evolutionary empiricism as a source of learning
Written by Khuda Dad
I- A few new perspectives in evolution:-
Evolution is now a normal and routine concept but its conception is still controversial and unexplored. Again we can find the common and accepted areas of the evolution to apply in the field of education. The most important factor in the evolution is the fact that, “ the evolution only proceeds forward” that means, organisms evolve only from simple to complex or in other words unicellular organisms can evolve into multi cellular organism but reverse never happened”. This fact also fits to the mind processes of brain. Men started to learn from simple experiences to complex concepts. The concepts are going to become more complex than ever. Another noticeable characteristic of the evolution is the levels of organization. When the organism evolves from simple to complex then this complexity is simplified by more organization. As the complexity grows the levels of the organization is also increase by same rate. Same is correct about the human mind. As the mental levels of men evolved from simple experiences towards complex concepts then men organized these concepts through two main ways. First through formulization of concepts with the help of the abstract concepts. Hence made quite variable and changing concepts certain, imaginable, understandable and explainable.
Secondly, men developed machines to grasp complex, lengthy and too much abstract concepts and turn them into visual events or altered them into virtual reality. The most prominent of these machines is computer that now become as an essential part of the human life.
Evolutionary adaptations of human Mind:-
The senses of human beings are the tools of the brain through which he interacts with the outer world or with external reality, but human senses are limited to certain aspects of energy, mass, speed, space and time. Beyond these ranges neither smaller nor larger realities can be sensed, though they have physical existence. The world of subatomic atomic particles and stars both are beyond of our senses. To solve this problem human brain has adapted a new strategy, that is, the imaginations, the concepts or a virtual world created inside the human brain. Hence we can imagine and model the subatomic particles and galaxies. This evolutionary adaptation of human brain made him dominant over all other creatures and is the base of human knowledge.
Whenever, we think about the teaching or learning process, we have to consider this evolutionary adaptation of the human brain to explore the all potentials of the students and construct new knowledge.
Another aspect of the evolution that may be any person has noted is the two distinct types of evolution that I call them, a) General Evolution and b) Special evolution.
1- General evolution: -
The most accepted, debated, researched and controversial concept of evolution, the evolution of organisms as a general from simple inorganic molecules to Homo sapiens that has occurred and is occurring for millions of years. The chief and noting point of this evolution is that though it is the evolution from unicellular to multi cellular organisms but the genetic information also evolve and differ as the organisms evolve.
2- Special Evolution:-
It is the evolution of unicellular organism into multi cellular organism. It is also known as differentiation of cells. As the cells differentiate they become specialized in both structure and functions and hence differ from each others but again the information in all the cells remains same. It has a short time span and it depends on the life expectancy of the organism.
Hence the main difference between the two processes is the information and time. This division of the evolution is important in the education as education is a tool of evolution of the human mind.
Why the concept of evolution is necessary to be analyzed and understood through comparing with the existing facts and with possibilities of the future? This question is important as anything without objectivity, purpose or reason is quiet opposite to the knowledge and the learning through irrationality and purposelessness has to be categorized as a negative learning. The concept of the evolution is necessary because all things are evolving and evolution as a common phenomenon of nature in all processes. Hence knowing more about nature helps to design more naturally and apply more naturally. Here we have also to make clear another misconception about the nature.
There is a general distinction between the natural selection and artificial selection in the Darwinian evolution, natural selection as a mechanism of evolution powered by nature and artificial selection as a mechanism of evolution powered by men. Human have the ability to change the environment and hence cause changes. It must be remembered that every organism including men are the product of the nature and all are part of environment and all influence the environment. What human do is quiet natural as human itself is in the process of evolution. Yes activity has destroyed the environment but destruction leads to the creation of a new environment. When human suffer they search for solution and it is the way that process of the evolution goes on.
Classification of evolution is appreciable and logical because it leads to the new understandings but claiming the human activity as an unnatural activity means separation of men from nature that is a misconception. Those who think human activity in general, unnatural they have a static perspective to the evolution while evolution itself is a dynamic process.
By accepting the human activity as a natural process, now we can distinguish the human activity as a positive natural process and negative natural process, as in nature both negative and positive forces and processes exists which lead to evolution.
Now as we came to conclusion that human is part of the nature and their activity is natural though they can be categorized as a negative and positive and similarly also can be classified according to their rate of evolution.
Human learn from every process and there are so many methods practiced through teachers all around the world but the most important thing is that whether these learning processes can produce such students that they could survive in the growing rate of evolution. For understanding more the rate of evolution and trends of evolution we have to further analyze the evolution.
Again we have to divide the evolution into external and internal evolution. By external evolution we mean the changes that an organism makes in its environment and by internal evolution we means the effects of environment on the organism. In other words, the changes that come in environment of organism whether it is a modification by organism or it is a physical and chemical changes that are caused by the nature is known as an external evolution and the physiological, mental or behavioral changes that in organism is known as an internal evolution.
In case of human, the human is making very fast and complex changes in their environments hence the rate of the external evolution is very fast in the human as compared with other organisms. As a matter of fact, there are very less physiological changes as compared to mental changes in the human in case of internal evolution, as men have created and started an evolution that is totally new to the nature and is totally in specification of the human. The men had also a spiritual phenomenon, even before men could evolve the ability to write and record.
Interestingly, in the internal evolution, modern man has evolved a transitional stage between mental and spiritual evolution and that is virtual evolution. It had not and has not any example in nature. The assimilation of external world through technology is a quite new phenomenon.
Plan of the instructive pedagogy based on evolutionary human nature:-
For the construction of a pedagogy based on the human nature through new perspectives of evolution that I have presented in the introduction, I have devised three steps that I will follow them one by one:-
a) Defining the human nature
b) Devising the values based on the human nature
c) Setting the objectives based on these values
These steps will put the foundations of an instructional pedagogy that can fit all the teaching techniques that men have developed and will developed. There is always room to fit any technique and hence this art in any place and fit it to any circumstance, as it base its values according to the challenges that a leaner will face at that stage of evolution.
a) Evolutionary Human nature:-
As human is a product of the nature so his nature is also dual natured. Using duality as a mechanism I have divided human nature from top order into physical and spiritual. Most of the modern men reject the concept of the spirit as an unscientific and unrealistic. Yes the spirit is beyond the capacity of science as experiment is an essential part of the science and the spirit is beyond the sensation and experimentation and hence, it is a subject beyond the scientific boundaries. But again spirit is core of religion which totally stands on the concept of the spirit. If we reject the spirit then we have to ignore a large of the human achievements, perspectives, visions, practices and effects. We have also to ignore a large part of the human behavior, psyche and emotions that is itself a totally unrealistic approach to the human nature, human existence, human approaches and human activities.
All what I have referred above is very important in the learning as they are the sources of a large part of the human values which set objectives, purposes and reasons and drive the human evolution both external evolution and internal evolution. We also can’t ignore the concept of the spirit in the human nature as no era and no region in the earth one can find where the concept of the spirit is not found. Hence spirit is in human nature that human was aware of it even before he could achieve the ability to record his activities and again he has this concept in an era that he has developed a totally new world of evolution, the virtual evolution.
After dividing the human nature into physical and spiritual, I again divide the both physical and spiritual natures of human using the duality of nature. Physical nature of human can be divided into logic and evolution. This is quite clear from the left and right hemispheres of the brain. Similarly the spirit of human is divisible into emotional and logical. Some may consider how the spirits can be divided into emotional and logical.
Intuition is the source of spirit of men. Just like mind that is the source of processing and interactions with physical world similarly the intuition is the source of the processing and interactions in the spiritual world of the human. Here I must define the intuition as most are too eager to respond before digesting a concept or in other words respond before they could judge. Intuition is a phenomenon of coming ideas without one is thinking. When these thoughts or ideas come to mind, it can be categorized into two types:- those related to the emotions of human and those which are related to the reasons , measureable things and to the common sensations of men.
Furthering the division of the human nature through mechanism of the duality we can divide the logic and emotions also into abstract logic and defined logic and similarly abstract emotions and defined emotions.
Starting from an oldest, most accepted and practiced but controversial concept of the spirit to the division of emotions into the abstract and defined emotions I tried to describe the human nature as a whole contradictory to the human culture of the philosophers to divide the human nature and construct a concept on that favorite part. Later on when methodologies are developed on the basis of these concepts, then they only nourish a part of human abilities not all the abilities they have. It is the reason that despite of the great advances in technology, the teaching methodology only became sophisticated, expanded and become more expensive rather than becoming an effective. Teaching methodologies only become the source of attraction that only serves the business strategies rather than developing the human capabilities. The approach to consider the human nature as a whole combine all the approaches and methodologies to the particular attitudes, approaches, needs, requirements…..etc.
A SHORT NOTE ON HUMAN NATURE:-
It is not the first attempt that I am doing to construct a philosophical base for the instruction through a natural process that is, evolution. Before there were a lot of struggles to correlate the biological evolution with the social evolution through common areas. They think that, the process of evolution is due to copy error (mutation) that RNA make from DNA. Just as RNA make exact copy of DNA and in case of error a mutation occur which results into a totally new product similarly in societies the ideas are copied and transferred from one generation to the next generation in case of copy error new ideas will emerge that will cause the cultural evolution.
On the basis of the ideas, they claim, (e.g., Edward Osborne Wilson), that they can explain the human evolution on the scientific basis. I consider this concept, just like the approaches of the partial divisionists, who try to explain the whole through a partial fact or tries to prove a part, as a whole. I agree that this happens both in human body and culture and it is a factor among the factor but it occurs only partially and there are many other factors also beside this.
There are two main things that I have put forwarded my own version of philosophy based on evolutionary process despite the existing ones. First, as there is no evolutionary mechanism that could explain the evidences of the evolution and predict the future one hence any claim on the evolution would be only claim rather than a reasonable and factual explanation. Secondly as Science is the human product and there are other human products also so explaining the whole human only through one of his product is a quite illogical approach.
I consider the evolution beyond the biological processes and as a natural process that leads all biological, physical, chemical, psychological and spiritual processes. Hence evolution needs a mechanism that is equally applicable to all natural processes. I have named this universal mechanism of evolution as a calculated discipline. Secondly, human nature should be considered through all his products not through a part of his product. It is must not be divided as a scientific, philosophical, religious, historical, anthropological……..etc but a humanist approach.
The most important thing in my conception in evolutionary empiricism about the human nature that is very decisive in education is about the limitation of human. Humankind naturally has 50% free will and 50% of his fate is determined by nature. If the human violets the 50% control of the nature then he is in loss. A few examples may help in understanding of these. The functions of internal organs from digestion to excretion are not in control of one. But the movements of arms, legs, head etc is quiet in control of human. The physical appearance of one determined by genes that he inherits from parents but the how he maintains his looks and health is in his control. It is the dual nature of human’s fate. There must not be violation of that 50% of natural control and it is the source of evolutionary values. These values are the sources of the objectives in education.
An educated person must be able to use the calculated discipline to understand the evolutionary values that make him able to speed up his rate of evolution.
Calculated Discipline as a universal mechanism of evolution:-
Every process under the natural forces tends to equilibrium. There is no exception to mental processes or spiritual processes. Even that knowledge, arts, practices and beliefs that are quiet strange to human understanding has a set of rules to follow. These rules are calculated discipline. Science is the most perfect of these disciplines in which the calculated discipline is followed.
Calculated discipline says that, there will be no process in absolute equilibrium. If there is a disturbance in the equilibrium then process starts and again its goal is to attain the equilibrium. The amount of energy, the rate of process and the direction of the process is quiet measurable and it is why I have named it calculated discipline. Actually in nature there is no absolute equilibrium and there are uncountable levels of equilibrium that affects each other and hence a larger equilibrium affects many smaller ones and the process goes on.
All the values are based on some sort of ideology and beliefs. Our approach is evolutionary hence our source of the value is based on the human nature. As described earlier that the human is the product of the nature and nature is evolving so all the divisions that we made on the basis of the dual mechanism, also evolve. In simpler words, the human spirit, emotions, logic, body, environments, cultures, laws, knowledge, technologies……etc all is evolving. The human values are also evolving hence when human set a vision or a purpose based on the rate of their evolution, their visions are affected from level of their evolution in the reason, logic, emotions, spiritual evolutions, all and all. These visions are the sources of the values.
For a better understanding of the values, it is good to distinguish between the law and values, because most modern men and women are more familiar with laws rather than values, as it is the laws that run their lives.
The minimum requirement of a society to live in is called law. It is beyond the scope of this topic to discuss the sources and the judgment of these laws. But it is the foundation of a society. What we mean by the minimum requirement is, that, if one obeys the laws then he has done nothing extraordinary and appreciable thing because it is the requirement of the society and everyone who wants to live in has to obey. If one does not obey then he is called criminal and the society punishes him. So obeying the law is just a permission to live in and not an honor. But again the society has set a set of qualities through which the people in the society is graded and makes their position categorized. These set of qualities are called values. The one who obeys the laws is free to live in society but those who acquire the values become honorable in the society according to the degree of the values he has acquired. Values are the guidelines for the law makers.
Now when we knew the meanings of the laws and values, is the time to discuss what is the best source of the values, through which we update the values that we have and hence set objectives for our laws and education system or teaching pedagogy that our children become compatible in societies they live and lead the society.
The source of the evolutionary values is nature. When I say the nature, it doesn’t mean to live like animals and plants just Lock had deduced, as I consider the human also part of the nature. But I mean we have to observe their instincts and learn how they instinctively maintain and acquire the calculated discipline. Our actions must is natural but coincide with the other natural processes also, otherwise we have to face and pay the prices of miscalculations or neglecting of the calculated discipline of the nature.
A quick view of the teaching methodology of the animals to their children opens many factual flaws in our practices of teaching. In case of lion as soon the children is able to walk properly mother brings small but live prey for her children. The child has to compete with each other for this prey and also to compete with the resisting prey. Mother does not interfere to make her child compatible. It is the best strategy to explore the environment in which they are living and the circumstances they will face. Coming back to our approaches of teaching, we have face made schools and creating an environment there that has no match with our homes, cultural practices, streets, bazaars, businesses in which they are going to live. Hence after completion of their studies, it takes very long time that students adjust themselves I their societies. I agree that it is half of the approach. There must an environment separate from the society also in which child learn the disciplines and skills that are beyond the homes, industries, markets and cultural practices. So the must be combination of both that students acquire leadership while he is studying and not wait to prove himself after the completion of studies which are unnatural.
One very humanist behavior that organisms posses is that they use the resources only to their needs as they are very conscious of the outcomes of misuse of the resources. For example a lion has the capability to prey frequently but he only prey when he feels the need.
Specialization of the individuals in the social animals like ants and bees according to the individual potentials. Unfortunately in our educational systems only professional get specialization not every individual while the human is the highly complex social organism.
Communal management systems of the socialized organisms. It is very beneficial for the market economy that people remain very individualistic but it is a great loss and chaos for human society. Human has dual nature of 50% individualistic and 50% social or communal. While leading the student to the specialization that is their individualistic expression they also must be taught that how to use and live in communal management systems to make use of their potentials more efficient.
The organisms have the ability to predict and prepare themselves for the coming or expected events. The best example is the migratory birds that deposit fats in their bodies before migration. It is due to their ability to predict the coming events and prepare themselves for it. There are no such things in the syllabus that ask teachers to teach the students how to predict and prepare themselves for the expected changes.
There are many examples that the organisms modify their environments to best fit them. Making nests, shelter is very common example of organisms engineering their environments. Exploring the nature and engineering of the nature is a natural process. Hence the teachers need to engage the students in the engineering of their environments. As we earlier said that human’s environment may be physical, chemical, biological, psychological, cultural, spiritual, virtual………etc.
Hence the following few points are the foundations of the evolutionary values (It may increase by further investigation). It is also works as objectives of the education.
1- Adapting a competing ability with the environment while student. It is quite unnatural to struggle after the completion of the studies.
2- Engineering the environment to suite ones needs and demand.
3- Consciousness of the resources and usage of the resources according to the needs.
4- Specialization of every individual according to his/her potential despite the professionals.
5- Learning the communal management for efficient uses of the potentials.
6- The ability to predict the environment and prepare themselves for it.
7- Every organism struggle for the dominance but never misuse the environment in their struggle and even self limit in case of danger.
Setting the educational Objectives:-
Based on the discussions that have been made previously, it is obvious that the evolutionary approach in setting objectives concern man as a whole and plan to answer to student as a whole. While setting these objectives special guidelines are taken from the nature. A plan is based on the two aspects:- Current needs and challenges to make students compatible with their current environments and secondly the expected evolutionary and futuristic challenges that students become leaders in their fields. I have named this approach as a futuristic realism. Futuristic means, the challenges that still do not exist and realism because it is not still a solid fact and is a dream.
While we say the human as a whole means students should be exposed to their societies from all perspectives with a strong judgment that make them able to judge and it is one of the biggest issue that today human face and there is no suggested solution for this. Exposure of the students to open source of information and marketing without judgment are going to create such a global generation that are very skillful and resourceful but lack judgment. Stressing special attention in developing the judgment of the students is the best possible solution and this solution is very ancient dated back to the Ancient Greek period.
A Comparison between the evolutionary empiricism and constructivism:-
Constructivism is no doubt a very compatible and well used method but still it is a partial approach in teaching and it is unable to create an environment in which compatible students come out. In constructivism the role of the teacher is said to be like a facilitator but facilitation is only one part of the teacher’s responsibilities. It is compared to the systems in which the teachers are like rulers. It looks quite impressive as the teachers are required to use a lot of resources for the teaching of the small concepts. There is I think, more stress on the experience than it should be as the students are going to look to the science only in the form of the activities while the nature of the science is more based on the concepts that are supported by the experiments. It is the ideas and concepts that lead the science. Students are needed equally be taught the concepts as well as experimentations.
Though the methods are devised to solve the problem of the human limitation to reality but it seems that the designers of the most of the methodologies may not fully aware of the nature of the knowledge. Human has limited experiences to the reality. What is in the subatomic world, world of energies, forces, time, space or broadly saying the heavenly bodies and phenomena are beyond the human experiences and they are the subjects of the human concepts and imaginations.
While we say the empiricism, we mean simplicity, both in terms of experiences and concepts. Human have adopted the conceptual and imaginary approach to those things that are beyond of their experiences. Concepts and imaginations are a natural adaptation of men to solve the problem of limitation of their nature. Hence the best teaching approach is that, conceptual realities must be taught through conceptual practices. It may solve our problem that, we have progressed much in technology due to our stress on experiences but not in Science because we have been neglecting the conceptual aspects in our basic education. One century before and even half century before when there were not much technological advancements, and men were compel to more rely on their concepts, great scientific advances were made. But now we are technologically advancing because we have neglected the conceptual sciences.
ROLE MODELING OR LEADERSHIP IN EVOLUTIONARY EMPIRICISM:-
During their evolution, human have adopted a hierarchical levels in their society that is obvious from tribal systems to governmental systems, from families to large institutional organizations and from a small business set up to the large multinational corporations everywhere, this adaptation is evident. These evolutionary adaptations affected the learning process. Those who lead their society lead, all the activities of society. Leaders, who with certain ambitions, objectives/goals/promises and the mechanism to achieve these goals are the great source of teaching and learning as they, influences the thoughts, actions and directions. Hence it is quiet natural that teachers should be role models and leaders which has a very broad role with strong judgment instead of the facilitators in the constructivism.
It is not an appropriate example but is an example that really expresses the shortcomings of modern education system. When Oprah Winfrey was inaugurating her school for girls in South Africa, she was asked, what her purpose of establishing a school is and her answer was fascinating, “This school is purposed to produce leader in every field and today every nation needs leaders in every field”. It is the best and accurate comment on modern educational systems.
Two main things are the results of modern collapse in education:-
1- Rely more on senses and technology and neglecting the thought process and conceptual practices.
2- Too much stress wishes and facilitating the student’s wishes rather than exploring and developing the student’s abilities and put them in situations to make them lead and compete their societies.
Scientific Evidence of the Evolutionary Empiricism:-
Followings are some facts that make it quiet evident the human is more rely on their imagination rather than on the senses.
1- Human have five sense organs and one brain but the brain consumes 20% of the total oxygen and digested food though it is only 2% of the body weight. (This figure is for an average adult).
2- The newborn’s brain consumes 75% of the infant’s daily energy needs.
3- Human babies are adapted to conserve more fat in their body to supply the needs of the neurons.
4- Brain development and functions require a large amount of the polyunsaturated fatty acids, (Docosahexanoic acid). Human babies have more DHA in their bodies than any other part of life to fulfill the needs of the growing grey matter of their brains.
5- Brain is evolved from inside to outside. Human’s brain stem is like reptiles brain and human’s limbic system is like other mammals but human cerebrum is more particular for the human itself.
6- Human cerebrum is divided into two equal halves. The right hemisphere is involved in creativity and left hemisphere is more involved in analysis. Simply human brain’s right hemisphere creates and left hemisphere analyze this creativity. It is an amazing solution to human’s limitations to external reality.
8- Gene information changes very slowly over generations but neuron information changes very rapidly in an individual. Neurons that are the source of conceptual reality speak the language of subatomic particles and cosmos that is light, while gene speaks with language of compounds that is close to human limitations.
Historical evidences of Evolutionary Empiricism
Evolutionary empiricism focuses more on the motivation of the students than facilitation of the students. Here are some historical evidences in which the people with fewer facilities overcome the people with large facilities and capabilities through motivations and leadership and put the foundations of new civilizations and enriched the human knowledge.
1-The Prophets like, Moses, (P.B.U.H), Christ, (P.B.U.H) and Muhammad, (P.B.U.H), Who made the weak people the rulers of world and put foundations of civilization that lead the world.
2-Buddah who left the facilities and come back with motivations and leadership who influenced and influences the largest population of human being.
3-Ghengis khan, an individual, who made a group of nomadic tribes the world leaders, who enriched the Chinese civilization and put the foundation of a new civilization in India.
4-The revolution of France gave rebirth to reason in Europe and put the foundation of modern Western civilization.
5- The red revolution in Russia put the foundation of World power U.S.S.R, who enriched the human knowledge and civilization greatly especially the Science. Similarly the red revolution in China changed the life of largest community of human being.
6-The rebellion of settlers in North American against the British Royal rule put the foundation of a new nation. The Civil war put the soul and direction and recognition to this new nation which leads this to global leadership and power.
7-The Islamic revolution in Iran, are leading the Islamic world and founded the foundation of an Islamic renaissance throughout the world.
THIS IS A ROUGH SKETCH OF AN APPROACH IN TEACHING PEDAGOGY WHICH WILL BE MORE OBVIOUS AND FUNCTIONAL WHEN DESIGNED, EXPERIMENTED AND OBSERVED AT SCHOOLS WHICH REQUIRES TIMES.