One's personality is both a composition and reflection, but if I have to choose one of them, I will choose reflection as the "self" is more important to me than "me". One's composition may change, walking across the cultural landscapes and climbing the social ladder but one's self is tied to one's reflections. The fun part is that reflections are not bound to "Time-Space" barriers ( it is not time-space) and respective mental constructs, which have grown so thick over ages, that they had reduced the image of humans to Sisyphus, rolling different sizes of boulders on hills of different heights.… As the name of this Blog indicates, knols are my perspectives on topics of interests, sweet/bitter experiences or just doodling :)
Saturday, January 14, 2012
DRIVING AGENTS OF HISTORY
Role of nature in History of primitive men
"Sociobiology" is a book of Edward Wilson that was first published in 1975. Though it was controversial and still a lot of people might not accept the approach, however it exists. In Sociobiology Wilson looked to human behaviors through process of natural selection, means just like other organisms. It is interesting to note that human don't need a land bridge to cross oceans like other mammals. Unlike all other organisms human carry tons of heavy goods through water and air. It is just one example that shows, how the history of men is different than history of other organisms.
When we look to human history it was not like what we see today. Primitive men just like other mammals needed a land bridge to cross oceans (We have oceanic mammals like Dolphin that live in ocean, however they do not use ocean to migrate but live in ocean). Ice age created such a land bridge for Primitive men to cross oceans. We know about the story of continental drift. Jigsaw puzzle of North American continent and African plate led to idea of continental drift and later on plate tectonics. Another similar puzzle was the presence of Red Indian on American continent, presence of Aborigian in Australian continent and Japanese and other South China sea islands in stone age. How these primitive people could have crossed the oceans?
Rock strata have records of several ice ages in earth history. Last ice age is very important to men as they can trace their history to that ice age or at least can explain the presence of human populations in distant lands that surrounded by vast and deep water bodies. How those primitive men could cross these oceans while they had not the technological advances that needed for crossing those oceans?
Ice age provides us the clues for land connections. As vast areas of water bodies began to freeze and the level of the oceans start dropping, it may provided the chance to cross the oceans. American Indians did not have horses domesticated before European settlers may indicate that primitive men of that age may had not succeeded in introducing the animals in their daily life or it is also possible the animals like horses could not survive in their journey in crossing the freezing waters. These crossing may be occurred 50,000 BC as there are evidence of human occupation in the Northern Territory of Australia which dates back to 52,000 years.
The Asians are even older as the native Australian and Americans migrated from Asia to those lands. Our discussion is not how old is human but how men made their history and what made men’s history. The early migrations of men are the earliest records of the prehistoric times. Before the migrations men were present on the surface of the earth. Migration of primitive men correlate with migration of other organisms who are in mercy of nature. It was harsh cold environment of ice age that both forced men as well as facilated them to migrate and hence dominate the earth. From first major migration in ice age to later migrations of nomadic tribes we see the role of migration as an empire creating process. Migration is a natural process that is still shaping and reshaping human history.
Creativity carves history
Historians divide the history of human in broad classes of pre-historic times, ancient history, medieval history and the modern history. In pre-historic times men did not recorded their history so the sources of our information about them are just from their remains as their tools, housing, etc. We divided the pre historic times in Stone Age, Bronze Age and Iron Age. Chinese cave dwellers in the northern china date back to the 500,000 years ago.
The Stone Age clearly indicate certain things,
1) Primitive men were mostly habitant of mountainous areas as mountains were providing ready shelter as caves and were source of their instruments (stones). Nature were limiting the choices of primitive men and driving their actions. (Do not confuse this time of history, with evolution of men as men evolved in Savnnah of Africa and migrated from there to Asia with northern horn of Africa).
2) As most of mountainous areas are cold regions so primitive men were mostly inhabitants of cold areas.
These two things make human different from the human like animals that are believed as their ancestors. Primitive men must be the inhabitant of cold regions so they could have survived the ice ages and could migrate through the land connections between continents during ice age. The stone tools indicate that men were curious and intended to save themselves from hazards of nature or overcome their weakness by force of nature. Men were always aware of the creativity. The stones tools make evident that the first agent of the human history is the creativity of men. Stone tools are not remaining of kings, politicians, lords, traders but they are the remains of creative artisans, so the first pace of human history is their creativity.
Migration is a powerful tool of making history:
Migrations are not only important in history of modern men as are evident of European migration to America and Australia but it was also important in making history, when perhaps human might not much concerned about history. The migrations of men from continents to continents in search of food and shelter, indicate their curious nature.Though they had not recorded the history of their migrations, absence of technological advances and the spread of human populations, in far land clearly indicate their migrations. Those migrations caused differences of races languages, cultures, customs, religions and behaviors which later on shaped the human history. The settlement of men in suitable but diverse habitats, indicate that migrations of men were not as result of their instincts as today we evidence in other animals.
Transition from hunting from grain cultivating societies:
Perhaps for primitive men living on plains were difficult as plain areas provide less shelter as compared to mountainous areas. Plain areas also provide less hunting opportunities. Hence living in plain areas was a revolutionary change in history of human. It was requiring innovation in every aspect of life in order to sustain life, from social system, to building shelters and hunting. The biggest innovation was a trasitional shift from hunting to more cultivating life style.The settlement of men on plain areas was an evolution of their creativity. Animals were and are also migrating in search of food, shelter and suitable places for reproduction but they had not settled like men to develop societies with particular distinctions.
Characterizations of human history:
We all are familiar with divisions of early human history into Stone Age, Bronze Age and Iron Age. You may call it chracterizations of human history where we relate human history to particular raw materials for tool making. Bronze Age was a revolutionary change in human history. I didn't use evolutionary change as we use during stone age because human in Bronz Age have evolved socieities. Changes in tool making sources were changing the whole human race. It remained true in whole human history. We see revolutionary changes in human history by introduction of gun powser, compass, printing machine, Engine, Electricity, Nuclear fission, Digitalization, etc.
It is interesting to note that archeologists are so occupied with three age systems of Stone Age, Bronze Age and Iron Age that some in Archeological Institute of America proposed to name the decade of 1970's as "WOOD AGE" because of overwhelming usage of wood in every aspect of American life. Not stoping here, they proposed to name the decade of 1980's as "NEON AGE" for sake of the same reason.
Bronze and then Iron made able men to make diverse tools. Men with swords, spears, and carts mus had felt, strength and they had, first time wish to conquer and rule the other settlements. If we say the human civilization started in the metal age, it doesn't seem wrong. The sense of empowerment by new tools, changed the human attitude and behaviors.
Roles of Active people VS Creative people in Human History:
These two groups of people (Active and creative) rule human society, however it seems that the role of creative people is increasing in ratio to active people in human history. From ancient tribal system, to empires and democratic nation states, there were always a small number of people in human societies were ruling over majority. These people are called active people. They could be politicians, elites like military officers, warlords, landlords, industrialists, corporation owners, etc.
Creative people do not need much introduction especially in modern world where economies are going to capitalize more on human creativity than any other field. Creativity become such a dominant factor in world economy that is said, "In digital world of today, fiction is more real than facts". Some of the high-tech companies are making money more than GDP of a number of nations. You may be puzzled by what to choose of fast changing digital devices, to what have and what not to have? It is only the role of high-tech companies in economy but high-tech companies are becoming more vital in relations of nations. To excercise their powers, a nation punish another by banning on transfer of technologies or in order to reward a nation, some new technologies are transferred. Hence the transfer of technology have become a bargaining tool in the world power competitions.
The active people played more vital role than the creative people in early history of men because the rate of creativity was too slow than the rate of activity. Early history of men is limited to descriptions of kings, lords and generals, their wars and their methods of ruling. If there were constructions, discoveries, inventions or anything else, they were credited to kings. It is just recently that men are showing interests in creativity because they have experienced the results of creativity and hence are interested to understand the role creativity in the human history.
Gods, as desires to control the environment:
The god and goddesses that early civilizations like Egyptians, Greeks and Romans worshipped depicts their needs and interests. Egyptians god and goddesses are the combinations of humanly bodies with heads of different animals which reveal their concerns about their environments and everyday lives, e.g.
- Amun Re, Pharaoh with double plumed crown, falcon was sun god. The sun is the source of energy and light on earth.
Khepri, with beetle head was to make the sun rise and bring fertility to land. The only source of their livelihood was farming.
- Sobek, crocodile headed was the god of water, the whole life of Egyptian was depended on the river Nile.
- Anubis, jackal headed, was the god of mummifiction. The Egyptians was very conscious of the immortality.
- Isis, women wearing a sun disc and cow horn was protector of the dead and goddess of children. In the goddess they clearly expressed their wish of immortality after dead and in form of continuation of their race in the form of their children.
- Similarly they had goddess of love and beauty, god of learning and writing, god of storm and thunder and goddess of woe, etc.
The belief in these gods and goddesses were in reality belief in search for forces that rule the nature. Gods and Godesses were the work of human imaginations to satisfy the deep desires for power and control on nature and natural processes.
Ancient Greeks came up with the same solutions with additions of Gods and goddes for human creativity and intellect, e.g, Zeus; king of heaven and earth, Hira; queen of deities and wife of Zeus, Apollo; sun god, hena; goddesses of wisdom, Ero; god of love, Hades; king of underground, Hephaestus god of fire and metal working,...etc
Writing/digitalization as real tools of making history:
We are living in a time that history is repeating itself. Our time is comparable to time when writing was invented. Writing provoided a tool to record events in more details and make it accessible to coming generations. In a sense it was the real beginning of making of history. In a digital period, history is repeating itself as it gave the common people to record their lives by digitalizations of their personal life. Human history has entered in a new phase. To some of us it may seem frightening as we have not learnt, how to cope with explosion of information. No one can understand better the importance of information than a historian whether he is a paleontologist or an archeologist. They invest a lot of time and resources to preserve every piece and details of information preserved in pieces of rocks and try their best to interpret the information to reconstruct the history. Internet is new form of fossilizations of personal lives that certainly change the course of investigation of future historians.
The most significant event in ancient history is the inventions of writing by Samarians and the beginning of recording history in Mesopotamia. This was turning point in the human history as it separated the prehistoric time from the ancient history. Of all achievements of this region, inventions of writing, inventions of letters, recording history and creating first code of ethics or first laws are heavier not only from their all other achievments but also from all other human achievements later on in history of men.
Historically, prominance of this region is due to their building strong cities, defeating and enslaving Jews, which were also mentioned in Bible (Annihilation of Babylon by founder of Iranian Nation, King Cyrus: Isaiah 44:22 to 45:2), however they had not significant impact on human history as their invention of writing.
Knowledge VS Construction:
The Egyptian, Greek and Persian civilization were nearly contemporary but our world are most influenced by Greeks rather than Egyptians and Persians. Egypt and Persia were stronger than Greeks. The Greeks especially the Athenians are famous for their philosophers and being father of modern states. On other hand, Egyptians and Persians are famous for their construction and rich cultures.
Though Persian empire successfully expanded their territory to large expanse of central Asia, Middle East and South Asia, however they lost these territories. Iranian arts and culture, enriched the Muslim Arabs that conquered Iran, so Persian empire remained alive through the achievements in philosophy, art, and literature, constructions.
Impacts of nations on each other:
When we look on the impact of ancient nations on modern world, we are amazed of interconnectedness of ancient nations and the common heritage of humanity. The system of modern governments are dominantly influenced by Roman empire.
Though, Chinese remained isolated from the world because of their geographical locations however Mongolian conquests opened its door to outside world. The gun powder, printing arts and compass played key role in rennaissance and emergence of Modern Western civilization and modern world. It was not the only time China have transformed the world. In modern time, as China opened its doors to world, it has transformed again the world. If the China had still its doors closed to world, the recent global financial depression would have a very different face.
The role of Muslims in changing Europe during rennaissance is also a well known fact. Muslims, especailly those who lived in Muslim Spain, North Africa and Turkey transferred the knowledge they have preserved from Ancient Greeks, Persians and Hindus. Muslims have also revolutionized the world by evolving the Science by stressing on experiments and compiling evidences. In simple words, were it not Muslims translators and scholars, a great part of Greek, Persian and Hindu acheivements would lost.
Human minds and heart is ultimate place to stabilize a conquest. Military force can conquest physical space but were it not accompanied by cultural conquest, it will turn into expensive defeat. Today world are amazed more from unique Chinese culture, art, style of constructions, choosing government officials, medicines, method of curing, philosophy, etc. from historic China. The inventions of paper by Chinese revolutionized the world as it made easy and cheap the saving as well expansion of knowledge. It also helps to make knowledge in approach of common man. The invention of block printing by Chinese was the first step in the way of modern electronic printing. The teaching of Confucius changed the life style of Chinese. Chinese had a particular attitude, behavior with each other which become part of their psyche due to the teachings of Confucius. Though Mongols conquered the China and ruled the China but because of the weaknesses in the field of creativity they lost their identity in the Chinese society, so he Chinese not defeated as her creative achievement had that much capacity the conqueror dissolved in it. Today the Mongolia is considered as a small and an uncountable country though once Mongolians ruled Asia, Africa and Europe. If the Mongols had great creative achievements along with their active achievement today their affects still exist in the conquered areas. Muslims were totally vanished from the Spain but their creative achievements still evidence their existence. Muslims don’t rule the India any more but their creative achievements are the sign of cultural India. Taj Mahal represent as a symbol of beauty and love that is character Muslim’s architecture left in India. In India develops two nation theories because both nations had strong creative achievements so there was naturally resistance for survival of both nations. If any one of these nations did not had creative achievements would dissolved in another one.
Muslims though were in minority kept alive their recognition due to rich creative achievements they had. Alexander the great made immortal his activities by leaving the creative memorials and construction wherever he conquered. Roman history is full of both creative and active achievements. They organized their Army, expended their territories, and devised a government system. Their construction are the richest of all which the Italy, especially city of Rome unique among worlds architectural styles. The Greek and Roman games and festivals became the nucleuses of modern world games and festivals. Today people know some third world countries because of their games especially South American countries and some African countries. Game is a kind of activity that has earned a historic frame for individuals as well as for nations. How architectural designs are important in history of nation can be realized by the Sydney Opera House which became the recognition of Sydney and Sydney the recognition of Australia. Medieval ages were not the silent era. There were wars between kings and lords. There were expansion of territories but again remember that age as dark ages. Why, because there was no creativity activity. The nations remained to live same for centuries. Though, the construction of this period like churches and castles are part of their creative works that become part of history. One thing here must be added that we talk about the creativity and activity but no favoring and moralizing depends upon the ones view or perceptions. Similarly creative work does not necessarily totally boost up the lives but it could result in mass destruction like modern weapons.
Islam appeared as a religion but revolutionaries amazingly a nation that had no creative or active back ground. Islam illuminates the black hole of civilization and turned Arabs of deserts to leaders of creative and active world. The most amazing part of Islam is how it filled the totally dried minds? How it convinced the wilds that had no taste of civilization? Islam begins its expansion as people revolution. It changes all aspects of individuals, families, tribes and societies by its unique government that was based on peoples struggle, "Jihad”. It is why Islam has soon spread all around. The other civilizations or kingdoms like Persia, Rome, and Egypt were all based on the high classes of the societies so they could not stand against Islam. Here is the difference between the history made by the peoples or mass activity or by activity of class of society. But these mass movements ended by establishing of dynasties in the Islamic countries. The deviation From Islamic teaching resulted in to restriction of creativities and activities to higher classes. Under the dynasties people’s creativities as well as activities became limited. When dynasties declined by divisions, the creativity and activity also declined. Even history saw a moment that some began to think that Islam is an old ideology and it can’t work in modern society or it is impractical in modern ages. A region that illuminate the blind minds in such a way that they become the leaders of the world, it certainly if illuminate a modern men they will change the history. It was proved by Imam Khomeini’s Islamic revolution, throw of the throne of the Iranian King by peoples struggle neither only be the part of society such a Mullahs nor by ruling classes. Muslim contribution in medicine, chemistry, mathematics, astronomy and construction are creative achievements. Their translation and interpretation of knowledge of older civilization made history as they preserved parts of history that were in danger. The activities that Muslims did in conquering the early civilization shaped later history, as it caused Crusade wars mobilized the Europeans. The crusades caused in cracking the dark ages as people mobilized due to involvements in wars. This caused in weakening of wars tight control of the feudal system. People that were involved in wars by observing outside world changed their minds. It caused the development of new classes such as scholars and traders beside the clergy men. It was the crusades that caused the renaissance in Europe. The movements of crusades has four obvious outcome;
1] The new areas introduced new products which resulted in trade.
2] The hold of Muslims on trade routes caused search for new routes.
3] It introduces new classes in to the feudal system.
4] New ideas come from new land which cause revival of Greeks ideas.
These all as a whole caused renaissance, which changed the old feudal system and prepared Europe to enter in to the modern age. The vital aspect of crusade was the people’s movement which by end of crusade turned for reforms. Because the renaissance was the continuation of people movement so it provides that much capacity that Europe can enter in the modern ages. The invention of printing press strengthens the people movement. The speed of the advancement was also because of people involvement, because at a single time the different aspects as blossomed as people of different interests were involved in their field. As the renaissance caused, people movement so it changed the religion by introducing Protestantism. It changed art and literature. It was the period of such great names as Michelangelo, Leonardo Da Vinci and Shakespeare.
Galileo and Copernicus shifted the idea of the centrality of the earth to the centrality of the sun. It is important because it was also the change from centrality of blind beliefs to the centrality of the logic and observation. The discovery of Columbus was in reality the discovery of futures leading power. The discovery of new lands expended the capacity of the modern man to absorb the rapid advances of the modern ages. Now we came to the modern ages which have the wounds of two world wars, colonization, revolutions, freedom movements, clash between two economic system, globalization...?The industrial revolution, The telecommunication, revolution. The atomic ages and the age of space. The modern age is the most significant era of the human history as it has the more instants than any era in human history. Though the most prominent role-played by Europeans, Americans, Russians in both creative and active achievements but the other nations also played active role in the freedom movements, revolution and struggle for modernization. The two World Wars brought great turns in the modern history as they strengthen the sense of nationalism, caused in establishments of united nations, Wars attraction of investments in the science and research which caused great technological advances, Wars started the race for high technology among nations, wars weakened the control of power of times on the colonies and made the favorable environment for freedom movements. The two world wars shown to the men a new face of the impacts in history made that global activity. The globalization is the active creative of the historic processes but still has a great deficiency that it is still could not get the people movements but the high classes are pulling people in to the globalization process. The Bolshevik revolution in Russia and the communist revolution in China started the cold war. The significant fruits of the cold war are the space age as well as intercontinental missiles with nuclear war heads, but the most significant fruit is the restriction of the capitalism as it introduced the labor and consumer theory which cause in increase in middle class though it were not fruitful all around world equally and still the majority of the population of the world is living in awkward condition. In the Muslim part of the world the most historic event was the Islamic revolution of Iran, which influenced the Islamic minds and many Muslim movements begin that will shape the future history of the world.
Till now we have discussed the creative an achievements of civilization that were lead of higher classes or by the peoples movements that made history but there were activities and creativities that made history and for which individuals were responsible. Here we describe some of the many active and creative people that made history Menes the first pharaoh of the ancient Egypt that united the upper and the Lower Egypt and hence put the milestone of a great civilization and their creative achievements influenced later civilizations. Hamurabi wrote the first laws. It was the foundation of civics in the human history. A creative act put the milestone for the civilized socializations. Today nations are known from their laws as it is the laws that determine the direction of the whole nation. It is much important that modern men devised international laws and there are human rights movements throughout the world that it makes it possible that a government y making inhumane laws don’t squeeze nation or a part of nation. Though, it is not still successful as the so called civilized powerful still believed in might is right. Buddha, that turned the ways of life of a great part of Asia and his teachings are history maker as it influenced the cultures of two great civilizations along with many smaller nation of the area. Cultures and customs of an area play a great role in history as they made the habits and behavior and in turn they influence the human activities and creativities. Cyrus the great which put the milestone of a great civilization the Persian civilization which replaced earlier civilization and not only made the later history of the area but also influenced the Greeks and Egyptians by attacking on them. Cyrus is great not only because built a Persian civilization but also because he introduce a small nation like Persian a great nation that only challenges Babylonians, Greeks and Egyptians but played a vital role throughout later history till now. The Persian culture enriched greatly Islamic Culture and today their Islamic resolution revived the Islamic movement. It is not the strengths of population but it is the force creativity and activity of Persians that they have enriched the history of the area. Confucius [551-479BC] is a sign of the strengthened effectiveness of creativity. His creative teaching worked like a strong nucleus force in great Chinese society. The force of his teaching glued Chinese society more than two thousand year. His teaching influenced both rules and Chinese people so in later history of China his teachings were always present. Socrates, Plato and Aristotle are three names that human history is more indebted to them as they provided the human creativity a direction and confidence by introducing and strengthening the knowledge. Today we put every scientific achievement in to the mathematical expression because we want to clean them from every kind of confusion that lead to the mistakes. Again we want to advance in to the vastness of unknown again the mathematics keeps us organize as lands of unknown covered by the thick forest of confusions. Mathematics is logical expression which develops out of creative behavior that these three great men show to the subjects of their study. Logical behavior works as a heart in the field of knowledge. Any where any time the logic was neglected the knowledge declined and confusion and superstition started growing. once Greek civilization looted it again could not recovered because they failed to recover the logical environment that produce logicians but whenever, anywhere on earth any nation without any distinction adopted this behavior they rose a great nation on the surface of the earth. Arabs after Islam, European nations after renaissances Russian, Chinese and Iranians after their revolution are example. Alexander the great because of his creative activity were always in mind as great men. His ideas which flourished under the influence of Greeks photosphere so his activities put a great influence in the human history as he influenced the behavior
.Alexandria was the expression of such idea that al human became a single nation. Today modern men are following him as they’re struggling for globalization. His conquering was in real sense preaching of the Greek civilization but it was limited to only to Alexander. his respect to the civilization is the behavior that still human kind could not fully realize or in other words men still could not evolved that much they respect the human civilization and they are still imprisoned by their prejudices. Men still could not get that much confidence that respect all human civilization as they all are unable to make recognition for themselves, so they have stick to prejudices as a defender of their recognition. There is general behavior of opposing and destroying the other civilization that remains themselves remains alive. It shows a clear feeling of weaknesses to enrich their own civilization that lead men. Shi Huangdi the first emperor of China united the China and this unity of Chinese remains throughout later history which made Chinese a nation. It is this long going unity that with the largest population and diversity of landscapes, Chinese still has strong sense of nation. The unification of China is more important that the building of Great Wall of China by Shi huangdi as the Great Wall of China cannot defend China against the Mongols but the unity of China saved their identity and recognition as Mongols dissolved in the vastness of this unity. The Great Wall of China also could not stop the Britain and the Japanese but the sense of Chinese nationality always saved their recognition against any invasion. The activities of Shi-huangdi though were cruel as he burnt the books, executed the scholars and forced the people to work on the Great Wall of China that thousands of them died but again his unification of China put great effects on later history of China. Theodosius a Roman emperor by making Christianity the official religion of Rome greatly shaped the later history of the world as it helped in the spreading Christianity all over of the Europe and the Rome become the center of the Christianity. Still Rome is the center of Christianity in] the world. In history of Medieval ages, in crusade war and during renaissance in Rome played a vital role. The important factor that that the Christianity played was that it made possible that Europeans interact with each other closely instead the diversity of nation as well as intrude in the colonized nations especially in African and American Continents. It played an important role as the slaves occupied nations mentally and spiritually become part of the invaders and their master and similarly the rival nation become come together in peace though there were wars throughout history among these rival nations and there were horrifying wars like first and second world wars. So Christianity as a religion binds much diversity in to unity and hence the Theodosius are responsible for these changes. This act of Theodosius made clear that how political decisions shaped the later on lives and history of mankind. It also make clear the importance of political activity that the majority of the people were neglecting and still are neglecting. IT is the active people who write not only the fate of their contemporary world but also influence the fate of later on generation by their decisions. Muhammad [PBUH] a perfect man that revolutionized every sphere of life. He was the symbol of both creativity and activity. He is the sole man in history 0f man kind that what he said did him. He started alone preaching Islam at the age of forty and in next twenty five years when he left this world HE has established an Islamic government. It is really a miracle that Muhammad [PBUH] could totally change the minds that were only filled with the prejudices, superstition and fear of famine. It was a revolution because the Islamic movement was the movement of the people. It is why the powers of the time collapsed all one by one by instead of all kind of superiority and deep roots in old civilization. The main thing in Muhammad’s Islamic movement is that it seeks the global Islamic governments and Islam Islam’s promise to the men is the global Islamic government based of justice. This main future of Muhammad’s revolution was always kept Muslims active and creative and will shape the future history of the world with great extent because it is the part of the beliefs of the Muslims so they can’t deviate from it. Islam in this sense is a great force of making history as it never appreciate the inactivity. Islam emphasis on learning, thinking, observation and making distinction between the scholars and no scholars is another force of making history as earlier Islamic era had evidenced but later on the deviation from Islam by rulers caused to decline the affects of Islam. As Islamic movement is the people movements so through out the history there were direct and indirect affects of deviation by the rulers as there unjust authorities were always in danger by people’s movement. Pop Urban 11 a man whose speech against Muslims started crusades wars that changed later history as crusades were people’s movement so the people become active which disturb the existing set up of power under feudalism. The most important part of people’s movement is that people realize the real power that they had and the weaknesses of authorities that rule on them by the psychic tape of fear. The second thing in peoples movement that people realize that the rulers source of power is the people source of organization and the people are not organize so when the people move under an organization they change the set up powers as the crusades lead to the renaissance. Genghis Khan the legendary man of activity who proved that a small and unknown nation by force of activity can conquer any number of people and any vastness and diversity of land. It is not technology, civilization, wealth and majority but it is the strength of activity that make bow down heads of inactive people. Great Wall of China, civilization of China and great number of Chinese is nothing if they are inactive. The diversity of land and people, the wealth and civilization, the great number with great rulers are nothing if they are inactive. A small number of inactive people come down from cold and dry land of Mongolia can bow down Asia, Africa and Europe proved by the Genghis Khan. Though Genghis Khan was a cruel man and destroyed many small tribes with limited resources and caused to decline Muslims strength but he thought men how activity make history. History only knows activity and creativity not race and era. Inactivity is a crime in the view of history. Mongols taught an other lesson also to men that activity without creativity is not permanent as if the activity rules on the bodies the creativity rules on mind so the Mongols which come down to conquer the civilized nation later on conquered by same nation as they dissolved in creative attraction of conquered nations so creativity and activity are complementary agents of the history. John Gutenberg is the inventor of press. The Gutenberg is a historic man as his invention liberated the knowledge from the paws of high classes and the mass publication of books made it frequent and cheap that common people can also afford readings. The availability of books descent the creativity and activity in to the common men. The speed growth in every sphere of life that today we observe in the blessing of involvement of common people in creativity and activity though not satisfactory still promisingly. The frequency of books caused the broadness of mind and the respect and understanding of different civilization and hence it has worked greatly to prepare field for global civilization of man. The availability of books and introduction of printing media in to lives also changed the concept of ruling people. Now the rulers struggle hard to control on the thinking of people s the actions are the results of thoughts so the propaganda of governmental agendas and censorship directly and indirectly is an important part of modern government. The theoretical bases of political parties also showing the importance of thinking of common people. Copernicus replaced sun by the earth in the old concept of astronomy. This replacement of heavenly in the concept of men do not changed any thing to the heavenly bodies but changed men as it turned the direction of men from the blind beliefs to the logic .this replacement helped men in better understanding of natural phenomena that later helped men to pace in the space age. Creativity of men is not only the metal flight of men but these metal flights can become real when men began to understand them. Russo a philosopher that used his creativity for the men’s liberty and equality and his and his writings proved how creative thinking influences the direction of history. Today human being is confused as from one side they are pretending that they respect the men’s liberty and equality and from other side their appetite for unequal progress and authority are forcing them to exploit the weak and inactive men. They are reasoning to make legal their exploitation in the name of teaching civilization to uncivilized nations. Russo had realized this fact when men indented to pace in speed progress that progress of men will result in declination of their ethics. Today we observe split personalities that act really like advanced barbarians. Modern men have no fear of any thing but of themselves as they are considering humanity a burden and obstacle on the way of it so called advancement. Men started giving that much importance to their products that they themselves become secondary. The gap between evolution of man and it products have split men mentally. Today there is a need of philosophers like Russo that they again use their creativity for men’s equality and liberty but this time for liberty of men from their superior and advanced product and equality of men for their superior products. Modern men inferiority to their products is the great loss of humanity in the history of men. it is the affect of Russo and other philosopher that at least modern men try to justify their acts that at least they remain in the circle of human. Every pace of the senses of machines or their product as greatly has been replaced. Jam Watt is the inventor of the steam engine. How engine shaped the history, just considered the absence of the engines in first and Second World War with engines there were no airplanes, tanks, vehicles, so that the army movements were slow the war would continue for longer time but there were fewer killings. There were no Pearl Harbor attack and there were no atomic bombs attacked on the Japan. The war in the oceans was as limited as there were no submarines and would take longer time to reach continent like America. The development from steam engine to jet engines develops the behavior and the expectation of men also. Men are expecting cheap frequent easily available, useable, safe and more stronger source of energy that would give him more speed and frequent chances of un inhabited planet that will revolutionize in the real since the human lives and human history. The most significant impact of the inventions are that they influence both creativity and activity of men so the inventions are not just related to the creativity of men nut it is the driving agent of both creativity and activity like trade and industry. Thomas Jefferson though acted as a state man but his role in the building of new nation is more theoretical. His ideas about liberty, religion tolerance, education etc established the bases of American constitution and institution and American states took away that lead them to a great way of the world power. Though for all this Jefferson is not solely responsible but his role as a thinker and state men is a decisive factor in the way this nation choose. For understanding the role of guidance of leaderships just compares the nations which got their freedom after the world war two and the revolutionary China. Those nations are really fortune who comes under the guidance of creative people in the critical moments of their history. Adam smith who the first time correctly analyzed the economic factors and hence made economics a solid way of thinking. Today economic analysis became the base of all the fields of life. People become that much conscious about economics that they considered most about the economic result of any action that they want to take and move their investments according to the political situation. Adam Smith creative analysis of economics greatly influence the history as the attitudes of the people changed. The aspect that Adam smith changed was his stress on labor as source of wealth and capital not the lands as the labor determines the rate of production. Extensive labor cause in to increase 2:56 AM 5/28/2007 of wealth. Karl Marx later on also stressed on labor as source of accumulation of the capital. The advances in the machines greatly replaced the human labor. Machines have no feelings and do not become tire and also have no involvement and emotional to any political or religious beliefs, so they work regularly without any objection. The improvement in machines increases the production and quality of the product, so the machines labor is source of capital in this era. This led us to the conclusion that in modern ages the creative labor in machines and designs of products are the source of capital. The shifting of physical labor to the creative mental labor is another change in economics which influenced every field of life as the importance of the creative attitude and environment increased. The nations that struggled hard to restructure their social and political setup as such that they achieve improve and sustain their creative environment and flourish their creative attitude will get superiority in the capital world which is the herb of all other sectors and historical fact that history get more influence from creative world as today we evidence. Napoleon, the sign of activity. The role Napoleon is though not that much small than we neglect him as his early successes were greatly erased by his later defeats by his main role in the history is the changing the minds. He is symbol of the courage had height of individual achievements. if we say he is the idol of inspiration for the courageous youth would not be false. The envious youth symbolize him as he becomes a emperor from second lieutenant. Though, he was not the sole man to go that much high rank. Here is our area people symbolize late General and governor Mohammad Musa Khan Hazara as he become general of great country that now become two important countries of south Asia Pakistan and Bangladesh. HE fought a successful war in 1965 war between India and Pakistan. He recruited as constable but become general. Napoleons are a hero for many youths but now days a concept of the heroes has degraded greatly by the filmic heroes. The people have mixed between the famous and celebrities and the heroes. Eros are not necessarily the famous people but hero is one who does a great task that look impossible sometimes heartlessly and sometimes by scarifying their lives. The main feature of a hero is that he seeks struggle and fight for the truth. But filmic heroes are just mere symbol of barbarian violence, sexuality and fashion. They just advertise the style that has mainly commercial purpose. This concept of the heroes affected the psyches youth. Youths commonly don’t seek the truth and the tasks in the way of truth but they seek visibility and lusty affections of the opposite sex either by the mad styles or by copying barbarian violence of the filmic heroes. John Dalton is an important in creative history of men that by presenting a technique of scientific thinking opened the door for innovating research in chemistry and physics that all natural sciences put their bases on them and filled the in treasure of men as much compounds and instrument that men could call themselves explorer of the nature. Dolton’s concept of the atoms as bases of elements and compound really started a new era in creative achievements of men that greatly influence the active achievements of men. Without the compounds that introduce by later research under light of this concept many events that are now part of our history would not be in these manners so we can say Dalton indirectly shaped the later on history of men. Dalton concept of compounds on the atomic bases shows the power of the method of thinking and techniques for thinking. The Dalton is also to symbolize for the affect of struggle or way of struggle of an individual of the whole mans lives and later on history. So we need today most individually and in organization to give special attention on the developing of techniques for minds and along with search for findings of the practical significance that develop the technological advances which are the base of economic growth as hub of the activity of men. Because may open a door that revolutionize the technology. Darwin like Dalton proposed a technique of the organic life that causes sudden evolution of understandings, explanation and research in organic life. Men being part of the organic life start looking at every aspect of life from lenses of evolution. Men’s politics, economics, distribution of population, social life and cultures and history all are looked and interpreted from view of the evolutions. These all certainly affect the relationship and behavior in the interactions. Earth history got great ventures tits principals and method of research from the evolution theory specially in aging the rock strata of the basis of fossils. These all are no doubt had affected on the materialistic growth of men as growth and development of history modern life of men concretely based on the raw materials and sources of energy. And evolution theory greatly helped in exploring them as by aging and understanding of the strata and their relationship with each other it become possible to map those sights that were out of the sights in the depths of earth or covered under alluvial or plantations, etc and hence helped in exploitation of raw material and petroleum and economical costs. The theory of relativity in reality was like a mutation in human understanding. The survival of the fittest have affect of positive and negative aspects. Negative in the sense the powerful erase the weak considering it a natural process as unfits cant survive and their vanishing is a natural process. Positive in this sense that the people struggle to become fit that could survive in the presence of the criminal minds and hearts filled with prejudices. Louis Pasteur is like Dalton and Darwin was a creative man that introduced the concept of the germs and the vaccination and prevention methods like pasteurization. May be that much not killed by arms that much human lived saved by the vaccination after the discovery of vaccination. This is the effect of the creativity that a single man can do for men that men can’t do for him. It is not known and may be no one will know that the Pasteur by the discovering the vaccination method have saved the lives of how much of the great men that after him played important part in the history or will play. From this point of view the Pasteur had shown that the force of the creativity has long lasted effects in the human history. Graham bell, put the base of what today we call the global village by inventing the telephone and made possible the telecommunications, fast and cheap. Today people may think and feel hopefully about the global civilization though there are political and economical barriers. I am very hopeful that the speed, fast and mass communications that are going all over the globe will speed up the understanding of the people of the world that scattered all over the globe with their own distinctions. May be more of the prejudices are due to limitedness and lack of the communication hence ignorance. But the global civilization requires the creative intellects of high capacity open mindedness that are filled with humanity. Today’s emptiness of intellects and the abstract fashion of creative men is discouraging point that men still failed to develop a global civilization though the technological advancements have provided much to them. It looks that the technology are much advanced from the philosophical, cultural and spiritual achievements of the men. I think it is the most suitable time intellectual again stands for the moral rearmament as extent morality can be only thread that we bind the beads of the diversity of the human cultures and achievements .Though the economic globalization is more practical but there would be always unpredicted situations and relationships in the economic medium. So the economy must work as a tool under the rule of morality. I know the men still is not that much evolved the agree or acts to follow such a way as the powerful knows no law were always the principal of the men but just can hope is just for the civilized men not the so called civilized men. Civilization is the surplus product of the materialistic needs but in the artificial needs and the mirage of the markets there is no surplus by the name of humanity or morality. Upon all degradation again the telecommunication is an effective tool in understanding an coming close, which may lead us toward a pseudo global civilization which will be based on abstraction. Graham Bell is a really put base of the new eras in the human history by his creative achievements. If we have to understand what means speed due to creative mass production the Thomas Edison is the best example. He is the miraculous inventor as his inventions exceeds a thousand and this number of inventions and their impacts reveal another face of the creativity and the activity. The inventions based on the earlier inventions or in other words the creative additions speed up the rate of everything. And the speed is the most prominent feature of the impacts of Edison’s inventions. Today we all experience the speed in every field of life and the rate of speed is increasing. This is the same as in case of Edison. Today there is no great discovery, inventions and any other eye catching progress in science but there are flood of the new, complex, better and cheap products in the market. The technology is running faster than access and the needs of the common men. This speed though has activated men in every corner of the world but they changed badly the senses of men. If I say the equation of the senses of the modern men had distributed and it has distributed men’s psych to an irreversible extent it would not be false, as the men are more familiar with external hardware and software then their internal hardware and software. Men have perceived or they habitually believed in more reality of the external world then internal world and then it is the most illogical behavior of the modern men. Edison to me is the pioneer of the mass production. Edison’s stronger influence on the history is his behavior in a following field. His nonstop and team work experiments influence others to follow him in the same pattern. His successes in inventions also enlightened the importance of the technique for thinking. Experimentation in real sense is a technique of the mind to evaluate the logic. Sigmund Freud, men whose creative work were man centered. The re attention of men though in terms of psychology is a big achievement and impact of the fried in the human history. This achievement is more important than the correctness or the falsehood of the Freud’s view of the psychology. Psychology still could not prove itself as a real so how it can make modern men believe that their internal world are so much real than external world. There is a clear lack of the mechanism. The mechanism lack as men has intelligence. As the mechanism developed men go beyond the mechanism due to their intelligence. It looks creativity are too much evolve than the creative work that creative work will never get it. Extent morality can be only thread that we bind the beads of the diversity of the human cultures and achievements .Though the economic globalization is more practical but there would be always unpredicted situations and relationships in the economic medium. So the economy must work as a tool under the rule of morality. I know the men still is not that much evolved the agree or acts to follow such a way as the powerful knows no law were always the principal of the men but just can hope is just for the civilized men not the so called civilized men. Civilization is the surplus product of the materialistic needs but in the artificial needs and the mirage of the markets there is no surplus by the name of humanity or morality. Upon all degradation again the telecommunication is is an effective tool in understanding a coming close, which may lead us toward a pseudo global civilization which will be based on abstraction. Graham Bell is a really put base of the new eras in the human history by his creative achievements. If we have to understand what means speed due to creative mass production the Thomas Edison is the best example. He is the miraculous inventor as his inventions exceeds a thousand and this number of inventions and their impacts reveal another face of the creativity and the activity. The inventions based on the earlier inventions or in other words the creative additions speed up the rate of everything. And the speed is the most prominent feature of the impacts of Edison’s inventions. Today we all experience the speed in every field of life and the rate of speed is increasing. This is the same as in case of Edison. Today there is no great discovery, inventions and any other eye catching progress in science but there are flood of the new, complex, better and cheap products in the market. The technology running faster than access and the need of the common men. This speed though has activated men in every corner of the world but they changed badly the senses of men. If i say the equation of the senses of the modern men had distributed and it has distributed men’s psych to an irreversible extent it would not be false, as the men are more familiar with external hardware and software then their internal hardware and software. Men have perceived or they habitually believed in more reality of the external world then internal world and then it is the most illogical behavior of the modern men. Edison to me is the pioneer of the mass production. Edison’s stronger influence on the history is his behavior in a following field. His non stop and team work experiments influence others to follow him in the same pattern. His successes in inventions also enlightened the importance of the technique for thinking. Experimentation in real sense is a technique of the mind to evaluate the logic. Sigmund Freud, men whose creative work were man centered. The re attention of men though in terms of psychology is a big achievement and impact of the fried in the human history. This achievement is more important than the correctness or the falsehood of the Sigmund Freud’s view of the psychology. Psychology still could not prove itself as a real so how it can make modern men believe that their internal world are so much real than external world. There is a clear lack of the mechanism. The mechanism lack as men has intelligence. As the mechanism developed men go beyond the mechanism due to their intelligence. It looks creativity are too much evolve than the creative work that creative work will never get it. The conscious study of men may devise a mechanism to suite the common men but it would never be unrevealed the creative men as they are except of the some explanation for their resultant works. Wrights brother’s creative work opened to men doors of not only new world inside world but also some new experiences of views and routs and also new means of power. Men for the thousands years experienced the land and the water but not the air. There were the world of the air that men lived under but not in. the inventions of airplanes brought men even beyond the world of the air into the world of the space. To me the Wright brothers are proved that the men are not evolved as Darwin perceived of the animals due the adaptation of the environment or the struggle for the survival. Men change the creativity and activity of the men goes beyond the struggle for their survival into their curiosity. The flight through the influenced the history of the men as it change the perception of the men about the life and living by new experiences. Albert Einstein’s most fascinating influence on men is the introduction of the theoretical science as real science. Men’s imagination is an endless laboratory with the most sophisticated equipments and most evolved systems. A creative men can use a mobile and in an expensive laboratory to his own courage and passion in the creativity. Majority of the population is poor to the existence and too poor in access to the knowledge though there are improvements in the literacy rate. This majority can’t imagine participating in sharing to the knowledge of the men generally and to the science especially. Albert Einstein’s most influencing role is his message that every men the chance to share by his n mind. Laboratory in real sense is hardware facilitation and every men has gifted by the hardware as brain. The real matter is software. it is why every student of science is not a scientist and every student of art is not artist. The main thing is creativity that by guidance finds its own inspiration. The relativity, time, space, matter and energy were original world that Einstein experienced in his imaginations. Others thought try to experience the same through his formulas but they can as much as their imagination allows them. As Einstein is the symbol of great mind and also he made the symbolic use of mind in the solving of the great mysteries mostly depended in his creative imagination so it is better beside this great mind discuss some short points about creativity as creativity is the great driving agent of the history. The natural phenomena and everything that is part of being or in other words have a existence is called facts. Every men observe, thing, learn, experience, feel,etc but all the men don’t have all this perception, approach, understanding and force of analyzing and expressing, Why? Even in same conditions and at same situations men have different thesis about same thing. Does taking this line will help us in understanding the different between great men and common men? OR Does analyzing the great men’s life give us certain set of principals based on which we design our ways. Or does their situation help us in revealing those process which them great men that we masked such an environment that would help us in producing great and unique men? My answer is no. We can’t design such a system that ensure producing great and unique men because every system produce controlled men can’t be great men as great men are unique and developed out of common way or controlled way. But it does not mean we became hopeless and do not try to develop our system or let our system go randomly or abstractly. there are four factors that our system designs always remain incompetent to the great men.1)The great amen are always thing or aim more advance than their present system and advancements and this make themunique.2)the design of a system requires times and energy to settle but the changes are to speed that our system could compete with them.3)the common men is too slow in adaptation of new system that encourage the continuous growth and development of the system in increasing speed.4)the restriction make stiff and tough but stop or slow down innovations and freedom encourage laziness and abstractness. It is very difficult to maintain the balance between freedom and blossom innovation and restrict ness that make prevent spoiling of the seeds. But upon all these the most promising point is inspiration. Inspiration is the strongest tools in producing the great men as inspiration do not touch only a single factors or point. But it affects all points from emotion of the work. Mentality, or intellectually that is the seed of the innovations and spirit that is the source of hope and triumphs. Psychologists believe that it is the emotion that makes a personality. Some other believes that the greatness is born out of the poverty as sense of poverty always scratches the minds to think. Some other believe that the kind of a education that one make a set up for their minds that make them introspect into nature of things uniquely,...etc and many other reasoning. But there is a common thing an all great men of all the fields throughout of the history that is passion. All great are passionate to their fields or cause. So it is the sole point that can lead us an understanding at least the way if not the method of greatness passions have roots in the emotions, intellectually, knowledge, involvements, spiritually equally. Understanding of the source of the passion depends on the awareness of the processes that goes inside. The awareness can get though the practice and teachings. The most prominent factors in seeding as well as growing passion, is inspiration. If the creativity and intellectually were rooted in the emotions than there are people which had lost their lives in the extremities of the emotions. Every man suffers from a kind of an emotional disturbance at any stage of life. if there is a reasoning that the emotions in the childhood is the factor that seed the personalities in the live ahead then there were nations that are thousands of year old and there poor and wealthy families among but they again failed in producing great men. If the poverty is the machine of the producing great men than the majority of the men had suffered and are suffering from the poverty. As the source of all knowledge is the human mind so it is better discussing about the set up of minds as part of a technique worth as a working method . Roger Sperry research says that though the both hemispheres look alike and their primary motor and sensory areas also function in the same way. But the both hemispheres function quiet differently. In the left hemispheres there are logical, mathematical and function quite differently. In the left hemisphere there are logical, mathematical and linguistic abilities and the right hemispheres lack all these but there are functions of the imagination, spatial perceptions, artistic and emotional abilities. As every man have the brain and their brain do not lack right or let hemispheres so everyone must have both logical or scientific abilities as well as artist abilities. Certainly every normal man has but some are extra ordinary, why? The answer is simple that an artist uses more his right cerebral hemisphere them his right and a scientist use more the left hemisphere. The reason to use a point more than the other is ultimately due to the interest and the interest due to the inspiration. There is point to remember and that is the inspiration is not just from men but source of inspiration may be anything. It may be an idea, an event, an object an individual, a system, an environment or set up. Giving importance to the creative and active people in a society and exposing them as heroes and respected part of society may help in the burning minds and inspire people. Inspiration is the driving force of the thinking which is the key to tie creativity and activity because it is thought on bases of which we decide. The above short discussion is an approach which can help us to design our environments according to our situations if we wish our offspring become great men that shape the future history of the men based on the justice. Lenin was a real active man as he made possible the ideology of the Marx into the work in a large area and large population and made Russia, Soviet Union, a super power of his time. Lenin proved that the activity based on the innovations have a force to not only demolish the old structure but also make workable even a rigid ideology like Marxism. Though the Marxism ruined to the resident force of the history but it was an innovative ideology in its time that turned the modern history of the men. the most significant result that Marxism taught the world in its experimental destiny is that system based on logic and innovations have no match to the systems based on the religion or beliefs in durability, as beliefs are self sustained system that can survive in every situation except the deviations in the beliefs and the laws themselves as evidenced from religious history. This also mark it clear the innovations in the main structure in the main system is not durable but the prohibition of the innovation make the system jam as the life is evolving and history is the record of the changes. Innovations under the guidance true teachings of the religion are the neutral behavior. Innovations under deviations and similarly the deviations under the innovations are the extremism that may fail in the experiments as logic and nature based on which we put our ideas are always not supporting each other. Lenin was an active man though his selections are not justifiable. Alexander Fleming’s discovery of the penicillin was the result of the innovative observation that changed the living standard of the men by effecting on both health and economy and also new ways of understanding and observing the living world. The discovery of the Fleming made the conscious of being alert and prepared for the chances. This idea in itself is innovating that there are chances but it is if not prepared to cash them. When there is preparation for seeking the chances became visible this kind of a behavior has a real affect on the history as it is a creative attitude that is the driving agent of the history. Adolph Hitler was an active man that though had major opponents but proved the force of the activity even it is in single men. Active men can active a nation that can change the fortune of the earth. Though, it is true that there is not any stability in the friendship or in the enmity of the nations. But that an active men that guide a nation that make recognition for a nation as particular nature based on the activation.
Mao se dong, was in real sense responsible for the awakening the lion that had slept for the thousands of the years. The great potential and power that China had didn’t expose her to the external world. It was the creative activity of Mao that unearthed this potential. He did not follow the exact Marxism but mold it according to the needs and the nature of his people and country. The most significant behavior of the Mao was his revolutionary nature. He had realized the importance of the activity so he made the revolution inside the revolution. The more changes in China after Mao are in the real sense of the following of the same attitude though not the same lines. It is the activity by the force of the revolution that this great potential of the energy or as termed the slept lion could remain alive. This is not true only for the China. The creative activity can suite every nation. Without of the activation also a nation can survive physically but not in history. Mao’s role in the modern history of the men is still continuous and the men in future will see more effects on the history of the modern men. Imam Khomeini is a sole man in the modern history that truly understood the nature of the man and makes a neutral walk in the extremities of the modern world. He based his revolution on the beliefs that a modern man has neglected as a un real. the equation between the internal and external world is a neutral behavior that modern men had lost Imam Khomeini’s contribution is not only the changing of the lives of the Iranian masses, but his real contribution is the opening of a new way for the guidance of modern man. His revolution is the awakening of the modern men from the deep of the unconsciousness of the materialistic world as a real perception. His revolution is call for a neutral behavior, the modern unconsciousness is looking unbreakable but the more evolution will ultimately lead men to the super consciousness. I have presented the creativity and activity as the driving agents of the history and also stressed that these driving agents have driven the history through masses also civilizations and also through individuals that were active, creative or active creative. the thing that is to say at last is the creativity and activity are no doubt are driving agents of the history but history of men are not always triumphant because of the activity and activity but there were senses of the revolution to the judgments of the human values also. Hence the history says to us that the activity and creativity require under the guidance of the human values. Though the active and creative men never like the limits but the human beings are not the limiting agents and they are the shaping agents. They concentrate the energy of the men. What limit the evaluation of the men is the prohibition of the creativity and activity not the guidance of the creativity and activity.
1. The Peking Man (Hominide Fossil), World Heritage in China;
2. Ice Age Civilization;
3. Ancient Egyptian Gods and Goddesses;