The Western Coalition led by USA has a history from 2nd world war. It succeeded in democratization of West Germany and Japan and to make these two countries a role model of material growth and development under liberal democracy. The Western Germany with liberal capitalist democracy and the Eastern Germany as a red socialist country were the frontline between Capitalist camp and communist camp. The wall divided the Western and Eastern Germany was indicating the physical existence of the iron curtain. The collapse of this wall and the conversion of USSR and China’s communist economies into more capitalized economies were the all the evidence of the successful strategies of Western Coalition in democratization of countries.
Certainly the successful democratization process has encouraged the policy makers and the political thinkers in USA to apply their same strategies in other parts of the world, where the values are rivaling the values of liberal capitalist democracy. It is why forces and thinkers arose in US by the name of “neocons” or neoconservatives who wanted to continue the same policies under the policy famed as “project of new American century”.
All other events after the 9/11 events are well known to all. The success of democratization in Iraq was rapid but the Afghanistan proved totally different form all previous examples even from Vietnam. Following is the analysis of the events:
Democratization of Germany and Japan after 2nd World War by Western Coalition:
Germany was a combat force in Europe and Japan in pacific area who had nationalistic ambitions of global glory and supremacy. They were enemies of the Western coalition before and during Second World War. The main threat to the Western Coalition was the ideology of racial supremacy. Soon after the end of war the western coalition started to democratize the Western Germany and Japan to achieve three objectives:
1- Convert the ideology of racial supremacy into westernized national democracies.
2- Making Western Germany and Japan an economic, democratic and military giant to stop the expansion of communist ideology which were strong in Russia and were taking strong roots in pacific region especially in China, Korea and Vietnam.
3- Democratization of the Western Germany accompanied by the European Recovery Plan (Also known as Marshal Plan) was aimed to keep the markets open for Western Alliance products and prevent another economic recession.
Democratization of Iraq by Western Coalition:
In Iraq the democratization succeeded to a certain limit because of the demographic division of the country. In south there is the majority of Shia population and in north there were Kurds and the small minority of the radical Sunnis were mostly in central area who hosted the Al Qaida extremists. The Stable south and North helped the democratization to succeed. Both shias in south and Kurds in north had struggled for their freedom during Sadam regime. It was the roots of people in south and north of the country in the movements for their autonomy that helped in success of democratizations and stabilization of the country.
Democratization of Afghanistan by Western Coalition:
The history of democratization efforts by Western Coalition in West Germany and Japan after Second World War and the democratization of Iraq in war against terror have some lessons to learn while coming to Afghanistan. Neglecting the history and tradition of people will result in failure of the democratization efforts. Democracy is the will of people. If a group of people do not want a democratic culture it won’t work. The western coalition need to think of Afghanistan as different entities despite a nation.
In Germany and Japan there were national movements and there were will for change and national glory so the process of democratization was successful and they rise as glorious nations. Still the US had to investigate that which nations are capable of changing. The Pashtoon community in Afghanistan is resisting to democratization. The reason is clear and that is pashtoon culture. The religious leaders and the tribal leaders are two sources of the authority in Pahtoon society and both of these authorities are ant-democratizations trends. What are called jirgas are under influence of these two sources of authority including the dominating powers from governments and businessmen in case of pakhtoons. But still these sources of authorities are susceptible to change if they were not rooted in radical Sunni sect of Islam. It is this ideology that is unchangeable because they are rooted in beliefs of people. This ideology asks for supremacy, dominance and use of every means to achieve them. As the Pashtoons have the regional Alliance in Arabian countries and radical sunnis around the world especially in South Asia, and northern Africa and central Asian countries so the Western coalition couldn’t neglect them, especially the rich Arab countries who have heavy investments and business ties with Western coalition so there are more important things than simply democratization.
Other nations in northern alliance like Hazaras, Tajiks and Uzbeks can flourish the democratic values but unfortunately they were especially the Hazaras are neglected. World less knows about the revolution in Hazarajat. Prior the Russian invasion of Afghanistan Hazaras had a feudal system. After the Russian invasion when Mujahidin were engaged in resistance against Russia there were resistance movements in Hazarajat against feudal lords and Tribal leaders. Feudal system collapsed and the common people empowered in Hazarajat. The Shura or community councils became the decision makers in Hazarajat. The fates of people were in hands of people, so the Hazaras were the most optimistic and susceptible to change.
The Hazaras are neglected and the whole concentrations went to Pashtoon areas, where the newly built schools were burnt and the roads and bridges were destroyed by road side bombs but they were rebuilt. The tax money of Western people is used to serve the people who don’t want them but the people who were regularly asking for them were ignored. Hazarajat have only get 2.5 kilometer road paved with no university, electricity and health care system. The shuras never empowered and the literacy and educations were not focused. The people are helping themselves in reconstructions and education but they were also no empowered.
This is main reason that the democratization process in Afghanistan is not getting root while in Iraq it got roots. While democratization process is not getting roots in Afghanistan so it has some consequences.
There are certain points which may are changing the minds of Hazaras and it is time to stop them from becoming so.
1- The funding, concentrations, developments and authority are going in areas where, from where Taliban had risen and there are strong physical and ideological support for Taliban. The Taliban is rooted in the culture of that people and for changing culture a long period of time is required.
2- The separatist movements of Baluchis and their tactics in targeting non-Baluch civilian to pressurize the government. The civilian are soft targets and so both Baluchis and Taliban are targeting civilian. This tactic made different civilian groups and their representatives in governments to support the separatists’ movements in order to minimize their losses.
Certainly the Hazaras are in midst of these processes. Neglecting the demand and desires of hazaras are making these feeling more extensive. The tactics of Taliban, Baluch separatists and ignoring of Hazaras and Hazarajat by international community are topics of discussions between Hazaras which are leading them to conclusion of separatists’ movements.
Certainly the separatists’ movements of Hazaras will affect the geopolitical situation of the area. It is the responsibility of the Western coalition to help Hazaras in their destinations and make the changing situation a non-violent transformation.